Aristotle s Ladder Darwin s Tree

Leading paleontologist J. David Archibald explores the rich history of visual metaphors for biological order from ancient times to the present and their influence on humans' perception of their place in nature, offering uncommon insight ...

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Author: J. David Archibald

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231537667

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 974

Leading paleontologist J. David Archibald explores the rich history of visual metaphors for biological order from ancient times to the present and their influence on humans' perception of their place in nature, offering uncommon insight into how we went from standing on the top rung of the biological ladder to embodying just one tiny twig on the tree of life. He begins with the ancient but still misguided use of ladders to show biological order, moving then to the use of trees to represent seasonal life cycles and genealogies by the Romans. The early Christian Church then appropriated trees to represent biblical genealogies. The late eighteenth century saw the tree reclaimed to visualize relationships in the natural world, sometimes with a creationist view, but in other instances suggesting evolution. Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859) exorcised the exclusively creationist view of the "tree of life," and his ideas sparked an explosion of trees, mostly by younger acolytes in Europe. Although Darwin's influence waned in the early twentieth century, by midcentury his ideas held sway once again in time for another and even greater explosion of tree building, generated by the development of new theories on how to assemble trees, the birth of powerful computing, and the emergence of molecular technology. Throughout Archibald's far-reaching study, and with the use of many figures, the evolution of "tree of life" iconography becomes entwined with our changing perception of the world and ourselves.

Origins of Darwin s Evolution

In Origins of Darwin’s Evolution, J. David Archibald explores this lapse, showing how Darwin first came to the conclusion that, instead of various centers of creation, species had evolved in different regions throughout the world.

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Author: J. David Archibald

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231545297

Category: Science

Page:

View: 568

Historical biogeography—the study of the history of species through both time and place—first convinced Charles Darwin of evolution. This field was so important to Darwin’s initial theories and line of thinking that he said as much in the very first paragraph of On the Origin of Species (1859) and later in his autobiography. His methods included collecting mammalian fossils in South America clearly related to living forms, tracing the geographical distributions of living species across South America, and sampling peculiar fauna of the geologically young Galápagos Archipelago that showed evident affinities to South American forms. Over the years, Darwin collected other evidence in support of evolution, but his historical biogeographical arguments remained paramount, so much so that he devotes three full chapters to this topic in On the Origin of Species. Discussions of Darwin’s landmark book too often give scant attention to this wealth of evidence, and we still do not fully appreciate its significance in Darwin’s thinking. In Origins of Darwin’s Evolution, J. David Archibald explores this lapse, showing how Darwin first came to the conclusion that, instead of various centers of creation, species had evolved in different regions throughout the world. He also shows that Darwin’s other early passion—geology—proved a more elusive corroboration of evolution. On the Origin of Species has only one chapter dedicated to the rock and fossil record, as it then appeared too incomplete for Darwin’s evidentiary standards. Carefully retracing Darwin’s gathering of evidence and the evolution of his thinking, Origins of Darwin’s Evolution achieves a new understanding of how Darwin crafted his transformative theory.

Eden s Endemics

Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds, Phylogenetic Supertrees: Combining Information to ... J. David Archibald, Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree: The Evolution of ...

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Author: Elizabeth Callaway

Publisher: University of Virginia Press

ISBN: 9780813944586

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 226

View: 486

In the past thirty years biodiversity has become one of the central organizing principles through which we understand the nonhuman environment. Its deceptively simple definition as the variation among living organisms masks its status as a hotly contested term both within the sciences and more broadly. In Eden’s Endemics, Elizabeth Callaway looks to cultural objects—novels, memoirs, databases, visualizations, and poetry— that depict many species at once to consider the question of how we narrate organisms in their multiplicity. Touching on topics ranging from seed banks to science fiction to bird-watching, Callaway argues that there is no set, generally accepted way to measure biodiversity. Westerners tend to conceptualize it according to one or more of an array of tropes rooted in colonial history such as the Lost Eden, Noah’s Ark, and Tree-of-Life imagery. These conceptualizations affect what kinds of biodiversities are prioritized for protection. While using biodiversity as a way to talk about the world aims to highlight what is most valued in nature, it can produce narratives that reinforce certain power differentials—with real-life consequences for conservation projects. Thus the choices made when portraying biodiversity impact what is visible, what is visceral, and what is unquestioned common sense about the patterns of life on Earth.

Dinosaur Extinction and the End of an Era

Broadening the basis of information on the topic of the Cretaceous extinction, this book particularly highlights evidence that points away from the global catastrophic scenario, towards a fossil based theory suggesting that a multitude of ...

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Author: J. David Archibald

Publisher:

ISBN: 0231076258

Category: Science

Page: 237

View: 789

Broadening the basis of information on the topic of the Cretaceous extinction, this book particularly highlights evidence that points away from the global catastrophic scenario, towards a fossil based theory suggesting that a multitude of factors resulted in the period's radical changes.

Cladistics

Review of J. David Archibald, Aristotle's ladder, Darwin's tree. The evolution of visual metaphors for biological order, Columbia University Press, 2014.

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Author: David M. Williams

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107008106

Category: Science

Page: 452

View: 374

This new edition of a foundational text presents a contemporary review of cladistics, as applied to biological classification. It provides a comprehensive account of the past fifty years of discussion on the relationship between classification, phylogeny and evolution. It covers cladistics in the era of molecular data, detailing new advances and ideas that have emerged over the last twenty-five years. Written in an accessible style by internationally renowned authors in the field, readers are straightforwardly guided through fundamental principles and terminology. Simple worked examples and easy-to-understand diagrams also help readers navigate complex problems that have perplexed scientists for centuries. This practical guide is an essential addition for advanced undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in taxonomy, systematics, comparative biology, evolutionary biology and molecular biology.

The Lost Romantics

Archibald, Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree, 11–13. ... Carl Bartsch in 1802, or Carl Edward von Eichwald in 1829; see Pietsch, Trees of Life, 32, 31, 46.

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Author: Norbert Lennartz

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030355463

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 333

View: 491

This book features a collection of essays, shedding subversively new light on Romanticism and its canon of big-six, white, male Romantics by focusing on marginalised, forgotten and lost writers and their long-neglected works. Probing the realms of literary and cultural lostness, this book identifies different strata of oblivion and shows how densely the net of contacts and rivalries was woven around the ostensibly monolithic stars of the Romantic age. It reveals how the lost poets inspired the production of anthologised poetry, that they served as indispensable muses, sidekicks and interlocutors of the big six and that their relevance for the literary scene has been continuously underrated. This is also surprisingly true for some creators of famous one-hit wonders (Frankenstein, The Vampyre) who were suddenly rocketed to fame or notoriety, but could not help seeing their other works of fiction turning into abortive flops.

Darwin s Corals

217–33 archibald, J.D., Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree. The evolution of Visual Metaphors for Biological Order, new York 2014 ascione, Gina carla, ...

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Author: Horst Bredekamp

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110680317

Category: Art

Page: 128

View: 697

To this day Charles Darwin’s evolutionary theory of the "survival of the fittest" has been visualized with the universal model of a tree of life. But early on in Darwin’s thinking the coral provided a fascinating alternative to the tree as a depiction of the evolution of the species. Horst Bredekamp shows how Darwin, a coral enthusiast and collector, found in it a more adequate illustration of evolution through natural selection: It grows anarchically in all directions and no longer upholds mankind as the "crown of creation." Using this example Darwin is proving himself to be both a destroyer and consummator of traditional natural philosophy. Since antiquity the coral had been a symbol of nature as a whole.

Animal Fables after Darwin

27 J. David Archibald, Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree: The Evolution of Visual Metaphors for Biological Order (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, ...

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Author: Chris Danta

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108664578

Category: Literary Criticism

Page:

View: 986

The ancient form of the animal fable, in which the characteristics of humans and animals are playfully and educationally intertwined, took on a wholly new meaning after Darwin's theory of evolution changed forever the relationship between humans and animals. In this original study, Chris Danta provides an important and original account of how the fable was adopted and re-adapted by nineteenth- and twentieth-century authors to challenge traditional views of species hierarchy. The rise of the biological sciences in the second half of the nineteenth century provided literary writers such as Robert Louis Stevenson, H. G. Wells, Franz Kafka, Angela Carter and J. M. Coetzee with new material for the fable. By interrogating the form of the fable, and through it the idea of human exceptionalism, writers asked new questions about the place of the human in relation to its biological milieu.

Darwins Historical Sketch

Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree: The Evolution of Visual Metaphors for Biological Order. New York: Columbia University Press. Darwin, Charles, and Wallace ...

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Author: Curtis N. Johnson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190882945

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 455

Charles Darwin's "Historical Sketch" has appeared as a preface to nearly every authorized edition of Darwin's Origin of Species since the second English edition was published in 1860. The "Historical Sketch" provides a brief history of opinion about the species question as a prelude to Darwin's own independent contribution to the subject, but its provenance is somewhat obscure. While some previous thinkers anticipated portions of Darwin's theory long before he did, none of them saw the complete picture as clearly as Darwin. As such, he was able to claim originality and priority for the idea that has transformed our understanding of nature. His "Historical Sketch" was written as an attempt to address these issues. Some things are known about its production, such as when it first appeared and what changes were made to it between its first appearance in 1860 and its final form in 1866. Other questions remain unanswered. How did it evolve in Darwin's mind? Why did he write it at all? What did he think he was accomplishing by prefacing it to Origin of Species? Curtis Johnson approaches these questions, offering some clarity on the originality of Darwin's work. Darwin's "Historical Sketch" is the first comprehensive study of Darwin's "Preface" to Origin of Species. Johnson conveys the pressure Darwin felt from friends and other correspondents to showcase the originality of his theory, and he tackles questions of originality by carefully examining the 35 authors Darwin referenced in this monumental text.

Charles Darwin

... Life Encyclopedia: Extinct Life (2013, a two-volume set co-edited with Norm MacLeod and Philip Levin), Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree: The Evolution ...

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Author: J. David Archibald

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781538111642

Category: Young Adult Nonfiction

Page: 232

View: 592

Charles Darwin: A Reference Guide to His Life and Works summarizes the life of Charles Darwin who is best known for his theory of evolution. He was a naturalist, a geologist, and a biologist and is one of the most influential figures in history.

Bioinformatics

Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree: The Evolution of Visual Metaphors for Biological Order. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

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Author: Andreas D. Baxevanis

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119335962

Category: Science

Page: 648

View: 246

Praise for the third edition of Bioinformatics “This book is a gem to read and use in practice.” —Briefings in Bioinformatics "This volume has a distinctive, special value as it offers an unrivalled level of details and unique expert insights from the leading computational biologists, including the very creators of popular bioinformatics tools." —ChemBioChem “A valuable survey of this fascinating field. . . I found it to be the most useful book on bioinformatics that I have seen and recommend it very highly.” —American Society for Microbiology News “This should be on the bookshelf of every molecular biologist.” —The Quarterly Review of Biology The field of bioinformatics is advancing at a remarkable rate. With the development of new analytical techniques that make use of the latest advances in machine learning and data science, today’s biologists are gaining fantastic new insights into the natural world’s most complex systems. These rapidly progressing innovations can, however, be difficult to keep pace with. The expanded fourth edition of the best-selling Bioinformatics aims to remedy this by providing students and professionals alike with a comprehensive survey of the current field. Revised to reflect recent advances in computational biology, it offers practical instruction on the gathering, analysis, and interpretation of data, as well as explanations of the most powerful algorithms presently used for biological discovery. Bioinformatics, Fourth Edition offers the most readable, up-to-date, and thorough introduction to the field for biologists at all levels, covering both key concepts that have stood the test of time and the new and important developments driving this fast-moving discipline forwards. This new edition features: New chapters on metabolomics, population genetics, metagenomics and microbial community analysis, and translational bioinformatics A thorough treatment of statistical methods as applied to biological data Special topic boxes and appendices highlighting experimental strategies and advanced concepts Annotated reference lists, comprehensive lists of relevant web resources, and an extensive glossary of commonly used terms in bioinformatics, genomics, and proteomics Bioinformatics is an indispensable companion for researchers, instructors, and students of all levels in molecular biology and computational biology, as well as investigators involved in genomics, clinical research, proteomics, and related fields.

Edinburgh Critical History of Nineteenth Century Christian Theology

Archibald, J. David (2014), Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree: The Evolution of Visual Metaphors for Biological Order, New York: Columbia University Press.

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Author: Daniel Whistler

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN: 9781474405874

Category: Philosophy

Page: 344

View: 267

Bridges the gap between Plutarch Studies and Achaemenid Studies through analysis of key texts

A Most Interesting Problem

Darwin, Descent, 1:201. 4. J. David Archibald, Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree: The Evolution of Visual Metaphors for Biological Order (New York: Columbia ...

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Author: Jeremy DeSilva

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691191140

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 588

"In 1859, Charles Darwin proposed a mechanism for biological evolution in his most famous work, On the Origin of Species. However, Origin makes little mention of humans. Despite this, Darwin thought deeply about humans and in 1871 published The Descent of Man, his influential and controversial book in which he applied evolutionary theory to humans and detailed his theory of sexual selection. February 2021 will mark the 150th anniversay of it's publication. In A Most Interesting Problem, twelve leading anthropologists, biologists, and journalists revisit The Descent. Following the same organization as the first edition of Descent - less the large section on sexual selection -- each author reviews what Darwin wrote in Descent, comparing his words to what we now know now. There are chapters on evidence for human evolution, our place in the family tree, the origins of civilization, human races, intelligence, and sex differences. An introduction by Darwin biolographer and historian Janet Browne provides context for Descent and a conclusion by Science magazine journalist Ann Gibbons looks to the future of the study of human evolution. All the chapters are written with a broad audience in mind. Ultimately, readers learn that Darwin was remarkably prophetic in some of his predictions, such as that the earliest human fossils would be discovered in Africa. But he was wrong in other areas, particularly in regards to variations between the sexes and races. Thus, A Most Interesting Problem is not so much a celebration of Darwin as it is a tribute to how science works, how scientific ideas are tested, and the role of evidence in helping structure narratives of human origins. The reader is left with a view of how far we have come in our quest for understanding human origins, biological variation, behavior, and evolution"--

Biological Systematics

Aristotle's ladder, Darwin's tree. The evolution of visual metaphors for biological order. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0231164122.

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Author: Igor Ya. Pavlinov

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000364316

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 523

This volume reviews the historical roots and theoretical foundations of biological systematics in an approachable text. The author outlines the structure and main tasks of systematics. Conceptual history is characterized as a succession of scientific revolutions. The philosophical foundations of systematic research are briefly reviewed as well as the structure and content of taxonomic theories. Most important research programs in systematics are outlined. The book includes analysis of the principal problematic issues as "scientific puzzles" in systematics. This volume is intended for professional taxonomists, biologists of various specialties, students, as well as all those interested in the history and theory of biology and natural sciences. Key Features Considers the conceptual history of systematics as the framework of evolutionary epistemology Builds a hierarchically organized quasi-axiomatic system of taxonomic theory Contends that more reductionist taxonomic concepts are less objective Supports taxonomic pluralism by non-classic philosophy of science as a normal condition of systematics Documents that "taxonomic puzzles" result from conflict between monistic and pluralistic attitudes Related Titles de Queiroz, K. et al., eds. Phylonyms: A Companion to the PhyloCode (ISBN 978-1-1383-3293-5) Sigwart, J. D. What Species Mean: A User's Guide to the Units of Biodiversity (ISBN 978-1-4987-9937-9) Rieppel, O. Phylogenetic Systematics: Haeckel to Hennig (ISBN 978-1-4987-5488-0) Wilkins, J. S. Species: The Evolution of the Idea, 2nd ed. (ISBN 978-1-1380-5574-2)

What Species Mean

Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree: The Evolution of Visual Metaphors for Biological Order. Columbia University Press. Avise JC, Johns GC. 1999.

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Author: Julia D. Sigwart

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780429859328

Category: Nature

Page: 232

View: 454

Everyone uses species. All human cultures, whether using science or not, name species. Species are the basic units for science, from ecosystems to model organisms. Yet, there are communication gaps between the scientists who name species, called taxonomists or systematists, and those who use species names—everyone else. This book opens the "black box" of species names, to explain the tricks of the name-makers to the name-users. Species are real, and have macroevolutionary meaning, and it follows that systematists use a broadly macroevolution-oriented approach in describing diversity. But scientific names are used by all areas of science, including many fields such as ecology that focus on timescales more dominated by microevolutionary processes. This book explores why different groups of scientists understand and use the names given to species in very different ways, and the consequences for measuring and understanding biodiversity. Key selling features: Explains the modern, multi-disciplinary approach to studying species evolution and species discovery, and the role of species names in diverse fields throughout the life sciences Documents the importance and urgent need for high-quality taxonomic work to address today’s most pressing problems Summarises controversies in combining different—sometimes quite different—datasets used to estimate global biodiversity Focusses throughout on a central theme—the disconnect between the makers and the users of names—and seeks to create the rhetorical foundation needed to bridge this disconnect Anticipates the future of taxonomy and its role in studies of global biodiversity

The Future of Phylogenetic Systematics

Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree: The Evolution of Visual Metaphors for Biological Order. New York: Columbia University Press. Atkinson, Q.D. and R.D. Gray ...

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Author: David Williams

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107117648

Category: Science

Page: 508

View: 182

This book documents Willi Hennig's founding of phylogenetic systematics and the relevancy of his work for the future of cladistics.

D Arcy Wentworth Thompson s Generative Influences in Art Design and Architecture

27 Archibald, D., Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree: The Evolution of Visual Metaphors for Biological Order (New York: Columbia University Press, 2014).

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Author: Ellen K. Levy

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781350191136

Category: Art

Page: 240

View: 424

Scottish zoologist D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson's visionary ideas in On Growth and Form continue to evolve a century after its publication, aligning it with current developments in art and science. Practitioners, theorists, and historians from art, science, and design reflect on his ongoing influence. Overall, the anthology links evolutionary theory to form generation in both scientific and cultural domains. It offers a close look at the ways cells, organisms, and rules become generative in fields often otherwise disconnected. United by Thompson's original exploration of how physical forces propel and shape living and nonliving forms, essays range from art, art history, and neuroscience to architecture, design, and biology. Contributors explore how translations are made from the discipline of biology to the cultural arena. They reflect on how Thompson's study relates to the current sciences of epigenesis, self-organization, biological complex systems, and the expanded evolutionary synthesis. Cross-disciplinary contributors explore the wide-ranging aesthetic ramifications of these sciences. A timeline links the history of evolutionary theory with cultural achievements, providing the reader with a valuable resource.

The Limitations of Theological Truth

Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree: The Evolution of Visual Metaphors for Biological Order. New York: Columbia University Press, 2014. Aristotle.

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Author: Nigel Brush

Publisher: Kregel Publications

ISBN: 9780825444708

Category: Religion

Page: 336

View: 328

Theology is based on God's true and unchanging Word, but does the Bible supply an unwavering foundation for spiritual certainties? Perhaps surprisingly, Brush contends that it does not, because, like science, it is a human discipline and subject to our limitations of knowledge, interpretation, and objectivity. In part one, Brush unpacks this contention, showing how Christians both past and present have arrived at conclusions that actually run counter to biblical teaching, and how these interpretive viewpoints have changed over time. In part two, he makes the case that flawed theological positions have resulted in views that needlessly conflict with science, and that these clashes can be resolved with more accurate formulations. Brush evenly evaluates questions including the age of the earth, the origin of life, and the end of time. Christians who wish to better understand the relationship between their faith and science will be encouraged by the great harmony that Brush sees between scientific findings and biblical teaching. As he guides readers into an awareness of the inherent limitations of our knowledge, believers can cultivate greater humility regarding these contested issues.

Chimpanzee Rights

Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree: The Evolution of Visual Metaphors for Biological Order, New York: Columbia University. Barash, D. (2018).

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Author: Kristin Andrews

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780429865619

Category: Philosophy

Page: 122

View: 541

Since 2013, an organization called the Nonhuman Rights Project has brought before the New York State courts an unusual request—asking for habeas corpus hearings to determine whether Kiko and Tommy, two captive chimpanzees, should be considered legal persons with the fundamental right to bodily liberty. While the courts have agreed that chimpanzees share emotional, behavioural, and cognitive similarities with humans, they have denied that chimpanzees are persons on superficial and sometimes conflicting grounds. Consequently, Kiko and Tommy remain confined as legal "things" with no rights. The major moral and legal question remains unanswered: are chimpanzees mere "things", as the law currently sees them, or can they be "persons" possessing fundamental rights? In Chimpanzee Rights: The Philosophers’ Brief, a group of renowned philosophers considers these questions. Carefully and clearly, they examine the four lines of reasoning the courts have used to deny chimpanzee personhood: species, contract, community, and capacities. None of these, they argue, merits disqualifying chimpanzees from personhood. The authors conclude that when judges face the choice between seeing Kiko and Tommy as things and seeing them as persons—the only options under current law—they should conclude that Kiko and Tommy are persons who should therefore be protected from unlawful confinement "in keeping with the best philosophical standards of rational judgment and ethical standards of justice." Chimpanzee Rights: The Philosophers’ Brief—an extended version of the amicus brief submitted to the New York Court of Appeals in Kiko’s and Tommy’s cases—goes to the heart of fundamental issues concerning animal rights, personhood, and the question of human and nonhuman nature. It is essential reading for anyone interested in these issues.

West Southwest

Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree: The Evolution of Visual Metaphors for Biological Order. New York: Columbia University Press. Baum, D. A., S. DeWitt, ...

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Author: Gregory K. Pregill

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351020046

Category: Science

Page: 340

View: 761

West Southwest: Vertebrate Life in Southern California celebrates an amazingly diverse fauna with description, evolutionary background, geographic insight, and ecological detail. Southern California is a vast region of very different habitats – all with an abundance of unique species of plants and animals and all within a day’s drive. Southern California shares an evolutionary history with other areas of the Southwest, but it has its own identity. The book is not a field identification guide. Instead, the book provides the evolutionary history of species groups, details where the individual species occur and their habitat preferences, and how they avoid the perils of predation and human impact.