Tense and Aspect in English and in German

However, there are still a lot of differences to be found when comparing the two languages. This is among other things due to the fact that English and German represent different language types.

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Author: Patricia Schneider

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783640727568

Category:

Page: 40

View: 498

Seminar paper from the year 2009 in the subject English - Pedagogy, Didactics, Literature Studies, grade: 1,3, University of Freiburg (Englisches Seminar), course: Proseminar I: Contrastive Linguistics, language: English, abstract: As English and German are both Germanic languages they are closely related. However, there are still a lot of differences to be found when comparing the two languages. This is among other things due to the fact that English and German represent different language types. Among the grammatical categories relating to which the two languages can be analysed, tense and aspect are certainly salient. Before starting to analyse both languages with regard to these categories, the difference between tense and aspect has to be clarified. Tense is both a deictic and a relational category. Therefore it locates an event on the time line usually with reference to the time of speaking. Aspect, by contrast, does not locate an event or situation on the time line nor does it relate the time of one situation to another. It is rather concerned with "the internal temporal constituency of one situation." This term paper will examine how English and German differ in their use and expression of tense and aspect taking the perspective of a learner. First the three stages of tense and aspect acquisition by learners will be described in general terms. Particular attention will be paid to the influence of instruction on the learners. Then this term paper will examine how English and German differ in their use of tense. This will be illustrated on the example of the different uses of the perfect. Afterwards the focus will be on aspect. While English uses the progressive to indicate a change of aspect, there is no such formal equivalent in the German language. Therefore German learners of English are confronted with the question of how to express this "internal constituency of one situation" in their mother tongue. Various devices that are used by German learners of

The Phylogenesis of Aspect in English

Seminar paper from the year 2008 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,0, University of Freiburg (Englisches Seminar), course: The Syntax and Semantics of the English Verb Phrase, 7 entries in the ...

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Author: Andreas Keilbach

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783640216901

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 13

View: 563

Seminar paper from the year 2008 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,0, University of Freiburg (Englisches Seminar), course: The Syntax and Semantics of the English Verb Phrase, 7 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Starting with a definition of ‘aspect’ and ‘phylogenesis’ in this term paper I will try to give an overview of the development of the grammatical category of ‘aspect’ throughout the history of the English language. According to Comrie, ‘aspect’ can be defined as follows: “As the general definition of aspect, we may take the formulation that ‘aspects are different ways of viewing the internal temporal constituency of a situation’.” In contrast to ‘tense’, which is a deictic category, ‘aspect is not concerned with relating the time of the situation to any other time-point [...]?” WordNet, a lexical database for the English language, defines ‘phylogenesis’ as follows: “Phylogenesis: ((biology) the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms)” Therefore, in connection with linguistic purposes and ‘aspect’ the term ‘phylogenesis’, usually used in biological and evolutionary terminology, can be understood as the diachronic development of the grammatical category of aspect from Old English (OE) to Modern English (ModE).

English Tense and Aspect in Halliday s Systemic Functional Grammar

This book is aimed at fellow practitioners and researchers in functional linguistics.

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Author: Carl Bache

Publisher: Equinox

ISBN: UCSC:32106019856845

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 229

View: 997

This book is aimed at fellow practitioners and researchers in functional linguistics. It offers a friendly but critical appraisal of a major component of the 'standard' version of SFL, i.e. the account given by Halliday and Matthiessen of tense and aspect in English. Supporting his criticisms with evidence from a project in corpus linguistics, Bache suggests that this account fails in several ways to satisfy accepted functionalist criteria, and hence needs revising and extending. After surveying alternative functionalist approaches to modelling time and tense in English (including Fawcett's Cardiff school approach and Harder's instructional-semantic approach), and after presenting a number of principles of category description, Bache goes on to offer an alternative SFL account of this area of grammar. In Bache's model, the focus is on the speaker's communicative motivation for choosing particular verb forms. The relevant choice relations are seen to draw on metafunctionally diverse resources, such as tense, action, aspect and other domains. The basically univariate, serial structure of the verbal group is accordingly enriched with certain characteristics associated with multivariate structures, and the idea of recursion is abandoned. Finally, Bache examines the descriptive potential of his model in connection with projection, conditions, and narration.

Aspect in English

Whether there is aspect in English is a question that has been asked over and
over again by many linguists, grammarians and teachers of English. For many
decades the development of modern linguistics was dominated by the idea that
in ...

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Author: K. Kabakciev

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401593557

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 352

View: 747

Based on an earlier edition published in 1992 in Bulgarian, this book offers a specific approach to one of the most controversial problems in linguistics. According to it, aspect is the result of a subtle and complex interplay between the referents of verbs and nouns in the sentence. This volume is of interest to researchers of aspect and related problems, theoretical and applied linguists, psycholinguists, philosophers of language, graduate students of general linguistics, English (Germanic), and Bulgarian (Slavic).

Anthropolinguistic Aspect of English Polysemy

Still the sources of the English lexis for the analysis are also represented by ASD
and MED. The choice of the dictionaries depended on the goal and methods of
the investigation. The use of several reliable dictionaries for the analysis of lexis ...

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Author: Marina Zhadeyko

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 9781446189559

Category: Anthropological linguistics

Page: 100

View: 668

Anthropolinguistics is a core topic of the majority of books on linguistics today. Still there are different approaches to word study within this field. This book provides a comprehensive survey of historic semantic changes of English polysemous words. Anthropolinguistic Aspect of English Polysemy is a wide-ranging account not only of how words witness history, but also of how evolution change is reflected in word semantics and of links between our past and present. It is available to a large audience as it sheds light on problems of evolution of human cognition that remain at the centre of contemporary linguistics.

Aspect in English

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Author: Ronald K. S. Macaulay

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1184590403

Category: English language

Page: 236

View: 323

Interfaces with English Aspect

The objectives of the present study are to illustrate the role of aspect outside
aspect, to provide a more lateral viewpoint on the presence of aspect in the
English verb system and to illustrate, in particular, that English is not special in
any way in ...

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Author: Debra Ziegeler

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027293107

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 325

View: 160

The field of verbal aspect has been a focus for the derivation of a multiplicity of theoretical approaches ranging over decades of linguistic research. From the point of view of recent studies, though, there has been relatively little emphasis on the nature of the interaction of aspect with other categories, and the ways in which our knowledge of aspect acts as a primary semantic contributor to the creation of other basic verbal parameters such as tense and modality. This book aims to cross some of the categorial borders, using a collection of studies on the interfaces of English aspect with other grammatical domains. The studies in the book have been assembled in order to answer two central issues surrounding the nature of English aspect: the possibility of the historical co-existence of a perfective and imperfective grammatical distinction in English, and the derivation of modality as an inference arising out of specific conflicts and combinations of lexical and grammatical aspect. In answering these questions, a data-driven, rather than a theory-driven approach is favoured, and the general principles of Gricean pragmatics and grammaticalisation are applied to a wide range of empirical sources to propose alternative explanations to some long-established problems of English historical linguistics and semantics.

Aspect

An introduction to verbal aspect as a general linguistic phenomenon, with examples primarily from English, Slavonic and Romance languages.

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Author: Bernard Comrie

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521290457

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 142

View: 862

An introduction to verbal aspect as a general linguistic phenomenon, with examples primarily from English, Slavonic and Romance languages.

The Acquisition of Lexical and Grammatical Aspect

Chapter 4 Acquisition of aspect in English With the aim of providing a plausible
psycholinguistic account of the mechanisms that lead to repeatedly occurring
patterns in the acquisition of aspect across languages, we devote Chapters 4, 5,
and ...

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Author: Ping Li

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110800715

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 261

View: 591

Language acquisition is a human endeavor par excellence. As children, all human beings learn to understand and speak at least one language: their mother tongue. It is a process that seems to take place without any obvious effort. Second language learning, particularly among adults, causes more difficulty. The purpose of this series is to compile a collection of high-quality monographs on language acquisition. The series serves the needs of everyone who wants to know more about the problem of language acquisition in general and/or about language acquisition in specific contexts.

The L2 Acquisition of Tense aspect Morphology

CHAPTER 6 The development of Tense - Aspect in English as a second
language and the variable influence of inherent aspect Alex Housen Introduction
This chapter discusses the development of English verb morphology as it
emerges from ...

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Author: M. Rafael Salaberry

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027224951

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 487

View: 402

The present volume provides a cross-linguistic perspective on the development of tense-aspect in L2 acquisition. Data-based studies included in this volume deal with the analysis of a wide range of target languages: Chinese, English, Italian, French, Japanese, and Spanish. Theoretical frameworks used to evaluate the nature of the empirical evidence range from generative grammar to functional-typological linguistics. Several studies focus on the development of past tense markers, but other issues such as the acquisition of a future marker are also addressed. An introductory chapter outlines some theoretical and methodological issues that serves as relevant preliminary reading for most of the chapters included in this volume. Additionally, a preliminary chapter offers a substantive review of first language acquisition of tense-aspect morphology. The analysis of the various languages included in this volume significantly advances our understanding of this phenomenon, and will serve as an important basis for future research.

Translation based Corpus Studies

This book presents a model for describing translation performance as a basis for contrastive linguistics, in the realm of tense and aspect.

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Author: Diana Santos

Publisher: Rodopi

ISBN: 9042017511

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 173

View: 572

This book presents a model for describing translation performance as a basis for contrastive linguistics, in the realm of tense and aspect. It is based on extensive corpus studies investigating the differences between English and Portuguese using authentic translations in the two directions. In method and substance, the book features several original claims, trying to achieve a balance between theoretical issues and the presentation of concrete translation data. In addition, it deals with computational applications of parallel corpora. Translation-based corpus studies should thus be appropriate for translator education, and for introducing contrastive semantics and the methodology of corpus linguistics to students of linguistics and computer science. Researchers in tense and aspect, translation, and corpus linguistics are, nevertheless, the book's primary audience.

A Grammar of Aspect

This book examines the aspect - the relationship between imperfective and perfective verbs - found in the Russian language.

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Author: J. Forsyth

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521075145

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 386

View: 567

This book examines the aspect - the relationship between imperfective and perfective verbs - found in the Russian language.

Aspect in Mandarin Chinese

CHAPTER 6 Aspect marking in English and Chinese We have so far developed a
model of aspect , as outlined in Figure 1.1 in chapter 1 , with particular reference
to Mandarin Chinese . This model encompasses situation aspect at the ...

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Author: Richard Xiao

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027230838

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 303

View: 265

Chinese, as an aspect language, has played an important role in the development of aspect theory. This book is a systematic and structured exploration of the linguistic devices that Mandarin Chinese employs to express aspectual meanings. The work presented here is the first corpus-based account of aspect in Chinese, encompassing both situation aspect and viewpoint aspect. In using corpus data, the book seeks to achieve a marriage between theory-driven and corpus-based approaches to linguistics. The corpus-based model presented explores aspect at both the semantic and grammatical levels. At the semantic level a two-level model of situation aspect is proposed, which covers both the lexical and sentential levels, thus giving a better account of the compositional nature of situation aspect. At the grammatical level four perfective and four imperfective aspects in Chinese are explored in detail. This exploration corrects many intuition-based misconceptions, and associated misleading conclusions, about aspect in Chinese common in the literature.