Beyond Snowden

In Beyond Snowden, Timothy Edgar—whose career in government coincided with Snowden’s tenure—grapples with many of the issues that consumed the former NSA contractor now in exile in Moscow.

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Author: Timothy H. Edgar

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815730644

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 198

Safeguarding Our Privacy and Our Values in an Age of Mass Surveillance America’s mass surveillance programs, once secret, can no longer be ignored. While Edward Snowden began the process in 2013 with his leaks of top secret documents, the Obama administration’s own reforms have also helped bring the National Security Agency and its programs of signals intelligence collection out of the shadows. The real question is: What should we do about mass surveillance? Timothy Edgar, a long-time civil liberties activist who worked inside the intelligence community for six years during the Bush and Obama administrations, believes that the NSA’s programs are profound threat to the privacy of everyone in the world. At the same time, he argues that mass surveillance programs can be made consistent with democratic values, if we make the hard choices needed to bring transparency, accountability, privacy, and human rights protections into complex programs of intelligence collection. Although the NSA and other agencies already comply with rules intended to prevent them from spying on Americans, Edgar argues that the rules—most of which date from the 1970s—are inadequate for this century. Reforms adopted during the Obama administration are a good first step but, in his view, do not go nearly far enough. Edgar argues that our communications today—and the national security threats we face—are both global and digital. In the twenty first century, the only way to protect our privacy as Americans is to do a better job of protecting everyone’s privacy. Beyond Surveillance: Privacy, Mass Surveillance, and the Struggle to Reform the NSA explains both why and how we can do this, without sacrificing the vital intelligence capabilities we need to keep ourselves and our allies safe. If we do, we set a positive example for other nations that must confront challenges like terrorism while preserving human rights. The United States already leads the world in mass surveillance. It can lead the world in mass surveillance reform.

Beyond Edward Snowden

Conspiracies. Espionage. UFOs. Hidden History. Secret Societies. The Paranormal. “Beyond” brings you stories about the secret and suppressed, the stories "They" don't want you to know!

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Author: Valerie D'Orazio

Publisher: StormFront Entertainment

ISBN: 9781632941411

Category: Comics & Graphic Novels

Page: 22

View: 359

Conspiracies. Espionage. UFOs. Hidden History. Secret Societies. The Paranormal. “Beyond” brings you stories about the secret and suppressed, the stories "They" don't want you to know! Take the Red Pill and join your fearless host Virgil Hall as he takes you far, far down the Rabbit Hole...to “Beyond"! Edward Snowden has been called a whistleblower, a hero, a traitor, a criminal...but who is he really? In “Beyond: Edward Snowden” we take a look at the man behind the headlines, searching for what might have motivated him to commit one of the biggest leaks of classified information in U.S. history.

China s Global Engagement

The results so far are mixed, and the future trajectory remains uncertain. But across the wide range of issues addressed in this book, China has become a major and likely an enduring participant.

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Author: Jacques deLisle

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815729707

Category: Political Science

Page: 365

View: 468

Assessing China's rapidly changing role on the international stage China is again undergoing a period of significant transition. Internally, China's leaders are addressing challenges to the economy and other domestic issues after three decades of dramatic growth and reforms. President Xi Jinping and other leaders also are refashioning foreign policy to better fit what they see as China's place in the world. This has included a more proactive approach to trade and related international economic affairs, a more vigorous approach to security matters, and a more focused engagement on international cultural and educational affairs. In this volume, China specialists from around the world explore key issues raised by a changing China’s interaction with a changing world. They chronicle China’s emergence as a more capable actor whose engagement is reshaping international affairs in many dimensions. These include: global currency and trading systems; patterns of cooperation and competition in technological innovation; economic and political trends in the developing world; the American-led security order in the Asia-Pacific region; the practice of international military and humanitarian intervention; the use of naval power; the role of international law in persistent territorial and maritime disputes in the East and South China Seas; the international human rights regime; the circulation of Chinese talent trained abroad; a more globalized film industry; and programs to reshape global cultural awareness about China through educational initiatives. Across these diverse areas, China’s capacity—and desire—to influence events and outcomes have risen markedly. The results so far are mixed, and the future trajectory remains uncertain. But across the wide range of issues addressed in this book, China has become a major and likely an enduring participant.

Edward Snowden

Edgar, Timothy H. Beyond Snowden: Privacy, Mass Surveillance, and the Struggle to Reform the NSA. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2017. Epstein, Edward Jay. How America Lost Its Secrets: Edward Snowden, the Man and the ...

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Author: Fiona Young-Brown

Publisher: Cavendish Square Publishing, LLC

ISBN: 9781502635402

Category: Young Adult Nonfiction

Page: 112

View: 891

In 2013, a British newspaper revealed how U.S. government agencies were collecting private information from millions of telephone calls. The news had been leaked to reporters by Edward Snowden, a private subcontractor for the National Security Agency. Snowden now lives in Russia. He faces criminal charges if he returns to the United States. Is Snowden a traitor for giving away American secrets, or is he a hero for protecting the human rights of the American people? With this book, students can read both sides of the story and decide for themselves.

No Place to Hide

A groundbreaking look at the NSA surveillance scandal, from the reporter who broke the story, Glenn Greenwald, star of Citizenfour, the Academy Award-winning documentary on Edward Snowden In May 2013, Glenn Greenwald set out for Hong Kong ...

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Author: Glenn Greenwald

Publisher: Metropolitan Books

ISBN: 9781627790741

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 536

A groundbreaking look at the NSA surveillance scandal, from the reporter who broke the story, Glenn Greenwald, star of Citizenfour, the Academy Award-winning documentary on Edward Snowden In May 2013, Glenn Greenwald set out for Hong Kong to meet an anonymous source who claimed to have astonishing evidence of pervasive government spying and insisted on communicating only through heavily encrypted channels. That source turned out to be the 29-year-old NSA contractor and whistleblower Edward Snowden, and his revelations about the agency's widespread, systemic overreach proved to be some of the most explosive and consequential news in recent history, triggering a fierce debate over national security and information privacy. As the arguments rage on and the government considers various proposals for reform, it is clear that we have yet to see the full impact of Snowden's disclosures. Now for the first time, Greenwald fits all the pieces together, recounting his high-intensity ten-day trip to Hong Kong, examining the broader implications of the surveillance detailed in his reporting for The Guardian, and revealing fresh information on the NSA's unprecedented abuse of power with never-before-seen documents entrusted to him by Snowden himself. Going beyond NSA specifics, Greenwald also takes on the establishment media, excoriating their habitual avoidance of adversarial reporting on the government and their failure to serve the interests of the people. Finally, he asks what it means both for individuals and for a nation's political health when a government pries so invasively into the private lives of its citizens—and considers what safeguards and forms of oversight are necessary to protect democracy in the digital age. Coming at a landmark moment in American history, No Place to Hide is a fearless, incisive, and essential contribution to our understanding of the U.S. surveillance state.

Race and the Writing of History

In his explication of an African presence and the consequences of African action, Snowden's last point was one of contention ... and beyond, Snowden would continue to build the case for a "black population in other Mediterranean areas, ...

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Author: Maghan Keita

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195354591

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 224

View: 470

Despite increased interest in recent years in the role of race in Western culture, scholars have neglected much of the body of work produced in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries by black intellectuals. For example, while DuBois' thoughts about Africa may be familiar to contemporary academics, those of his important precursors and contemporaries are not widely known. Similarly, although contemporary figures such as Martin Bernal, Molefi Assante, and other "Afrocentrists" are the subject of heated debate, such debates are rarely illuminated by an awareness of the traditions that preceded them. Race and The Writing of History redresses this imbalance, using Bernal's Black Athena and its critics as an introduction to the historical inquiries of African-American intellectuals and many of their African counterparts. Keita examines the controversial legacy of writing history in America and offers a new perspective on the challenge of building new historiographies and epistemologies. As a result, this book sheds new light on how ideas about race and racism have shaped the stories we tell about ourselves.

Awards

Snowden Spur is on the Union Pacific Railroad and leads off a siding which is designated as interchange track ... as far as the switch to the Snowden Spur but not over the portion of the interchange track lying beyond Snowden Spur .

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Author: United States. National Railroad Adjustment Board. First Division

Publisher:

ISBN: UCAL:B3003116

Category:

Page:

View: 934

Awards First Division National Railroad Adjustment Board

Snowden Spur is on the Union Pacific Railroad and leads off a siding which is designated as interchange track ... as far as the switch to the Snowden Spur but not over the portion of the interchange track lying beyond Snowden Spur .

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Author: United States. National Railroad Adjustment Board

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:35112101953729

Category: Arbitration, Industrial

Page:

View: 806

Cyber Security Threats and Responses for Government and Business

Others beyond Snowden with access to cyber secrets also did extensive harm. Harold T. Martin III, another NSA contractor working for Booz Allen, played a prominent role. Martin was arrested in August 2016 and charged in a 20-count ...

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Author: Jack Caravelli

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 9781440861741

Category: Computers

Page: 245

View: 437

This timely and compelling book presents a broad study of all key cyber security issues of the highest interest to government and business as well as their implications. • Takes a broad approach to the problems of cyber security, covering every important issue related to the threats cyber security poses to government and business • Provides detailed coverage of the political, financial, data protection, privacy, and reputational problems caused by cyber attacks • Offers a forward-looking approach, discussing emerging trends that will bring new challenges to those charged with enhancing cyber security • Makes insightful suggestions into how nations and businesses can take steps to enhance their cyber security

Borderless Wars

20 Michael V. Hayden, “Beyond Snowden: An NSA Reality Check,” World Affairs Journal, January/February 2014, http://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/ article/beyond-snowden-nsa-reality-check (accessed December 12, 2014); Darren Samuelsohn, ...

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Author: Antonia Chayes

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107109346

Category: Law

Page: 200

View: 481

This book investigates the legal implications of 'gray area' military operations in counterinsurgency, cyber warfare and the war on terror.

Terrorism and State Surveillance of Communications

Perhaps ironically for Snowden's supporters, the new IPA Bill that resulted from the debates he substantially punctuated, does not claw ... 4 Michael V. Hayden (2014) 'Beyond Snowden: An NSA reality check', World Affairs, 176(5), 13–23.

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Author: Simon Hale-Ross

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780429677922

Category: Law

Page: 130

View: 600

This book brings together leading counterterrorism experts, from academia and practice, to form an interdisciplinary assessment of the terrorist threat facing the United Kingdom and the European Union, focusing on how terrorists and terrorist organisations communicate in the digital age. Perspectives drawn from criminological, legalistic, and political sciences, allow the book to highlight the problems faced by the state and law enforcement agencies in monitoring, accessing, and gathering intelligence from the terrorist use of electronic communications, and how such powers are used proportionately and balanced with human rights law. The book will be a valuable resource for scholars and students of terrorism and security, policing and human rights. With contributions from the fields of both academia and practice, it will also be of interest to professionals and practitioners working in the areas of criminal law, human rights and terrorism.

Crisis of Conscience

See also Rahul Sagar, Secrets and Leaks: The Dilemma of State Secrecy (Princeton, NJ, 2013); Timothy Edgar, Beyond Snowden. Privacy, Mass Surveillance, and the Struggle to Reform the NSA (Washington, DC, 2017); Jason Ross Arnold, ...

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Author: Tom Mueller

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9780698405103

Category: Political Science

Page: 608

View: 602

"A call to arms and to action, for anyone with a conscience, anyone alarmed about the decline of our democracy." — New York Times-bestselling author Wendell Potter "Powerful...His extensively reported tales of individual whistleblowers and their often cruel fates are compelling...They reveal what it can mean to live in an age of fraud." — The Washington Post "Tom Mueller's authoritative and timely book reveals what drives a few brave souls to expose and denounce specific cases of corruption. He describes the structural decay that plagues many of our most powerful institutions, putting democracy itself in danger." —George Soros A David-and-Goliath story for our times: the riveting account of the heroes who are fighting a rising tide of wrongdoing by the powerful, and showing us the path forward. We live in a period of sweeping corruption -- and a golden age of whistleblowing. Over the past few decades, principled insiders who expose wrongdoing have gained unprecedented legal and social stature, emerging as the government's best weapon against corporate misconduct--and the citizenry's best defense against government gone bad. Whistleblowers force us to confront fundamental questions about the balance between free speech and state secrecy, and between individual morality and corporate power. In Crisis of Conscience, Tom Mueller traces the rise of whistleblowing through a series of riveting cases drawn from the worlds of healthcare and other businesses, Wall Street, and Washington. Drawing on in-depth interviews with more than two hundred whistleblowers and the trailblazing lawyers who arm them for battle--plus politicians, intelligence analysts, government watchdogs, cognitive scientists, and other experts--Mueller anatomizes what inspires some to speak out while the rest of us become complicit in our silence. Whistleblowers, we come to see, are the freethinking, outspoken citizens for whom our republic was conceived. And they are the models we must emulate if our democracy is to survive.

National Security Leaks and Freedom of the Press

14 In his public testimony before the House Intelligence Committee, Clapper said that Snowden's disclosures “went way, way beyond [Snowden's] professed concerns with socalled domestic surveillance programs” and caused “profound damage,” ...

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Author: Geoffrey R. Stone

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780197519417

Category: Law

Page: 320

View: 857

Written by a group of the nation's leading constitutional scholars, a deeply informed, thoughtful, and often surprising examination of who has First Amendment rights to disclose, to obtain, or to publish classified information relating to the national security of the United States. One of the most vexing and perennial questions facing any democracy is how to balance the government's legitimate need to conduct its operations-especially those related to protecting the national security-in secret, with the public's right and responsibility to know what its government is doing. There is no easy answer to this issue, and different nations embrace different solutions. In the United States, at the constitutional level, the answer begins exactly half a century ago with the Supreme Court's landmark 1971 decision in the Pentagon Papers case. The final decision, though, left many important questions unresolved. Moreover, the issue of leaks and secrecy has cropped up repeatedly since, most recently in the Edward Snowden and Chelsea Manning cases. In National Security, Leaks and Freedom of the Press , two of America's leading First Amendment scholars, Lee C. Bollinger and Geoffrey R. Stone, have gathered a group of the nation's leading constitutional scholars-including John Brennan, Eric Holder, Cass R. Sunstein, and Michael Morell, among many others-to delve into important dimensions of the current system, to explain how we should think about them, and to offer as many solutions as possible.

Jennie Lee

57 That was beyond Snowden. He could offer only to look after unemployment benefit, andeven that not for long. Snowden was appalled by the feckless economics ofthe progressive Left. MacDonald likewise wasunpersuaded by the political ...

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Author: Patricia Hollis

Publisher: Faber & Faber

ISBN: 9780571320912

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 480

View: 762

First published in 1997, Patricia Hollis's biography of the pioneering Labour MP Jennie Lee (1904-1988) won both the Wolfson History Prize and the Orwell Prize. It is the definitive study of this remarkable woman, her stormy political career, and her marriage to Aneurin Bevan. In a new preface to this edition Hollis adds insights into Lee's life which emerged subsequent to first publication, and also draws on her own experience as a Labour Minister from 1997-2005. 'Lee's lives and loves, passions and drives are beautifully and frankly explored in Patricia Hollis's compelling book.' THES 'Superbly researched, engrossingly written, scrupulously honest.' Gerald Kaufman, Daily Telegraph 'What makes it particularly fascinating is the author's own first-hand knowledge of politics and of the Labour movement.' TLS 'One of the best political biographies of recent years' Alan Watkins, New Statesman

The Oxford Handbook of Freedom of Speech

69 Timothy H Edgar , Beyond Snowden : Privacy , Mass Surveillance , and the Struggle to Reform the NSA ( Brookings Institution P 2017 ) . 70 Glenn Greenwald and Ewen MacAskill , ' NSA Prism Program Taps in to User Data of Apple , Google ...

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Author: Adrienne Stone

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192562623

Category: Law

Page: 704

View: 507

Freedom of speech is central to the liberal democratic tradition. It touches on every aspect of our social and political system and receives explicit and implicit protection in every modern democratic constitution. It is frequently referred to in public discourse and has inspired a wealth of legal and philosophical literature. The liberty to speak freely is often questioned; what is the relationship between this freedom and other rights and values, how far does this freedom extend, and how is it applied to contemporary challenges? The Oxford Handbook on Freedom of Speech seeks to answer these and other pressing questions. It provides a critical analysis of the foundations, rationales, and ideas that underpin freedom of speech as a political idea, and as a principle of positive constitutional law. In doing so, it examines freedom of speech in a variety of national and supra-national settings from an international perspective. Compiled by a team of renowned experts in the field, this handbook features original essays by leading scholars and theorists exploring the history, legal framework and controversies surrounding this tennet of the democratic constitution.

Secrets and Spies

Edgar, Timothy H., Beyond Snowden: Privacy, Mass Surveillance, and the Struggle to Reform the NSA (Brookings, 2017). 33. In fact, bulk data capture is not contrary to FISA; see Edgar, Timothy, “Bulk NSA Internet Program Shows the ...

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Author: Jamie Gaskarth

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815737988

Category: Political Science

Page: 199

View: 303

Exploring how intelligence professionals view accountability in the context of twenty-first century politics How can democratic governments hold intelligence and security agencies accountable when what they do is largely secret? Using the UK as a case study, this book addresses this question by providing the first systematic exploration of how accountability is understood inside the secret world. It is based on new interviews with current and former UK intelligence practitioners, as well as extensive research into the performance and scrutiny of the UK intelligence machinery. The result is the first detailed analysis of how intelligence professionals view their role, what they feel keeps them honest, and how far external overseers impact on their work Moving beyond the conventional focus on oversight, the book examines how accountability works in the day to day lives of these organizations, and considers the impact of technological and social changes, such as artificial intelligence and social media. The UK is a useful case study as it is an important actor in global intelligence, gathering material that helps inform global decisions on such issues as nuclear proliferation, terrorism, transnational crime, and breaches of international humanitarian law. On the flip side, the UK was a major contributor to the intelligence failures leading to the Iraq war in 2003, and its agencies were complicit in the widely discredited U.S. practices of torture and “rendition” of terrorism suspects. UK agencies have come under greater scrutiny since those actions, but it is clear that problems remain. The book concludes with a series of suggestions for improvement, including the creation of intelligence ethics committees, allowing the public more input into intelligence decisions. The issues explored in this book have important implications for researchers, intelligence professionals, overseers, and the public when it comes to understanding and scrutinizing intelligence practice.

Edward Snowden

8. Jeremy Bender, “Edward Snowden Will Soon Be a Comic Book Star,” Business Insider, May 20, 2014, http://www. businessinsider.com/beyond-edward-snowden-marvelcomic-2014-5. 9. Jim Dwyer, “A Removed Snowden Sculpture Inspires a Hologram ...

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Author: Adam Furgang

Publisher: Enslow Publishing, LLC

ISBN: 9780766092082

Category: Young Adult Nonfiction

Page: 128

View: 589

In June 2013, the news organization The Guardian first published articles revealing the shocking revelations that the National Security Agency (NSA) was conducting mass surveillance on all American citizens in secretive bulk-data collection programs. Hundreds of thousands of top-secret documents were leaked from the NSA by a computer programmer named Edward Snowden. This enlightening biography examines the life of Edward Snowden, his reasons for leaking classified documents, his ongoing controversy as a whistleblower, and the revelations and changes in data collection laws that resulted from the massive disclosure.

Issues in Media

Sabrina Siddiqui, “Congress passes NSA surveillance reform in vindication for Snowden,” The Guardian, June 3, 2015, https://tinyurl.com/yd4mbr64. 72. ... BIBLIOGRAPHY Selected Sources Books Edgar, Timothy H., Beyond Snowden: Privacy,

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Author: CQ Researcher,

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 9781544350554

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 360

View: 227

What is the future of television? Do social media and big data threaten privacy rights? Do children have too much access to violent media content? Is reporting on global conflict worth the risk? These questions—and many more—are at the heart of today’s media landscape. Written by award-winning CQ Researcher journalists, this collection of non-partisan reports focuses on fifteen hot-button issues impacting the media. With reports ranging from the fight over net neutrality to social media and politics, Issues in Media promotes in-depth discussion, facilitates further research, and helps readers formulate their own positions on crucial issues. And because it’s CQ Researcher, the reports are expertly researched and written, presenting readers with all sides of an issue. Key Features: Chapters follow a consistent organization, beginning with a summary of the issue, then exploring a number of key questions around the issue, next offering background to put the issue into current context, and concluding with a look ahead. A pro/con debate box in every chapter offer readers the opportunity to critically analyze and discuss the issues by exploring a debate between two experts in the field. All issues include a chronology, a bibliography, photos, charts, and figures to offer readers a more complete picture of the issue at hand.

Secret History

The Story of Cryptology Craig Bauer. doc2.pdf. Breedan II, John, “What a Former NSA Deputy Director Thinks of the Snowden Movie,” Nextgov, ... Hayden, Michael V., “Beyond Snowden: An NSA Reality Check,” World Affairs, Vol. 176, No.

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Author: Craig Bauer

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351668491

Category: Computers

Page: 640

View: 735

The first edition of this award-winning book attracted a wide audience. This second edition is both a joy to read and a useful classroom tool. Unlike traditional textbooks, it requires no mathematical prerequisites and can be read around the mathematics presented. If used as a textbook, the mathematics can be prioritized, with a book both students and instructors will enjoy reading. Secret History: The Story of Cryptology, Second Edition incorporates new material concerning various eras in the long history of cryptology. Much has happened concerning the political aspects of cryptology since the first edition appeared. The still unfolding story is updated here. The first edition of this book contained chapters devoted to the cracking of German and Japanese systems during World War II. Now the other side of this cipher war is also told, that is, how the United States was able to come up with systems that were never broken. The text is in two parts. Part I presents classic cryptology from ancient times through World War II. Part II examines modern computer cryptology. With numerous real-world examples and extensive references, the author skillfully balances the history with mathematical details, providing readers with a sound foundation in this dynamic field. FEATURES Presents a chronological development of key concepts Includes the Vigenère cipher, the one-time pad, transposition ciphers, Jefferson’s wheel cipher, Playfair cipher, ADFGX, matrix encryption, Enigma, Purple, and other classic methods Looks at the work of Claude Shannon, the origin of the National Security Agency, elliptic curve cryptography, the Data Encryption Standard, the Advanced Encryption Standard, public-key cryptography, and many other topics New chapters detail SIGABA and SIGSALY, successful systems used during World War II for text and speech, respectively Includes quantum cryptography and the impact of quantum computers

Myths and Realities of Cyber Warfare Conflict in the Digital Realm

“The Cyber Threat to National Critical Infrastructure: Beyond Theory.” Information Security Journal: A ... Hayden, Michael V. “General Michael Hayden: Beyond Snowden: An NSA Reality Check, Oxford Union.” Oxford Union, February 18, 2014.

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Author: Nicholas Michael Sambaluk

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 9781440870811

Category: History

Page: 218

View: 673

This illuminating book examines and refines the commonplace "wisdom" about cyber conflict—its effects, character, and implications for national and individual security in the 21st century. "Cyber warfare" evokes different images to different people. This book deals with the technological aspects denoted by "cyber" and also with the information operations connected to social media's role in digital struggle. The author discusses numerous mythologies about cyber warfare, including its presumptively instantaneous speed, that it makes distance and location irrelevant, and that victims of cyber attacks deserve blame for not defending adequately against attacks. The author outlines why several widespread beliefs about cyber weapons need modification and suggests more nuanced and contextualized conclusions about how cyber domain hostility impacts conflict in the modern world. After distinguishing between the nature of warfare and the character of wars, chapters will probe the widespread assumptions about cyber weapons themselves. The second half of the book explores the role of social media and the consequences of the digital realm being a battlespace in 21st-century conflicts. The book also considers how trends in computing and cyber conflict impact security affairs as well as the practicality of people's relationships with institutions and trends, ranging from democracy to the Internet of Things. Provides an overview of the numerous myths and realities associated with all aspects of cyber warfare Explains how the leveraging of social media shapes political discourse and frays cultural norms Shows how advanced persistent threats engage in espionage against critical infrastructure Reveals how individuals and criminal groups conduct an array of nefarious cyber activities with wide-ranging levels of skill