The Interpretation of Ecological Data

A detailed introduction to the methods used by ecologists--classification and ordination--to clarify and interpret large, unwieldy masses of multivariate field data.

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Author: E. C. Pielou

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471889504

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 232

A detailed introduction to the methods used by ecologists--classification and ordination--to clarify and interpret large, unwieldy masses of multivariate field data. Permits ecologists to understand, not just mechanically use, pre-packaged programs for multivariate analysis. Demonstrates these techniques using artificial data simple enough for every analytical step to be understood.

Classification and Ordination

I.C. PRENTICE Introduction Ordination has been a major topic of recent research
in vegetation analysis. ... 'Ordination versus classification is no longer seen as a
controversy: we now realise that ordination can reveal clusters and that cluster ...

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Author: E. van der Maarel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400991972

Category: Science

Page: 188

View: 410

Eddy V AN DER MAAREL This volume is the first of two volumes covering the Sym computer programmes for the rapid clustering and ordina posium 'Advances in vegetation science', which was held at tion of very large sets of reI eves and for (subsequent) table Nijmegen, The Netherlands, from 15-19 May 1979. This rearrangement (this volume as well as the book Data symposium was organized on behalf of the Working Group Processing in Phytosociology contain various new pro for Data-Processing of the International Society for Vege grams). What we do not have is a manual in which the tation Science. After this group held its final meeting two apparently successful methods are compared and applied years earlier it decided to continue its activities, but within a to some data-sets. H. Lieth, editor-in-chief of a new Junk wider scope. Most members of the Group felt that the series 'Tasks for vegetation science' already suggested to original aim, i. e. the introduction of data-processing and produce such a manual in this series. multivariate methods for use in the systematic description The present volume contains the texts of the lectures and of plant communities, was more or less fulfilled. The book most of the poster demonstrations of the first three sessions Data -Processing in Phytosociology, largely based on papers of the Symposium, dealing with classification and ordina in Vegetatio, edited by E. van der Maarel, L. Orloci & S.

Classification and Ordination of the Plant Communities of Lesotho

000 . . . . . . . . . da 000000000000000000000 . 00 Comparison of Classification
Systems . . . Plant Community Classification . Ordination of Plant Communities . .
Using Ordination to Study Seral Relationships REVIEW OF LITERATURE .

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Author: Niels Leroy Martin

Publisher:

ISBN: PSU:000013086473

Category: Botany

Page: 242

View: 864

Classification of Plant Communities

19.8 Classification and Ordination In the early days of applying numerical
methods to vegetational classification, ordination methods were also being
developed concurrently, and there was much confusion as to their relative roles.
It is now ...

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Author: R.H. Whittaker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400991835

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 584

The natural communities of the world are diverse, and many schools of ecology have developed classifications of communities in partial independence of one another. There is consequently a vast and widely dispersed literature on the classification of plant and animal communities, comprising divergent approaches of different schools and representing a great experiment on the usefulness of different possibilities for classification. The editor sought in a re view monograph of 1962 to summarize these schools and their history, and in 1973 published a treatise on 'Ordination and Clas sification of Communities' as volume 5 of the Handbook of Vegetation Science. We were fortunate, in preparing the latter work, to have a truly international panel of authors to discuss different major ap proaches to classification. This second edition of the book of 1973 is intended to make the work more widely available in a less expensive form as companion volumes on ordination and on classification of plant communities.

Ordination and Classification of Communities

The decision was encouraged by a well formulated and detailed outline for the Handbook worked out by the Dutch phytosociolo gists J. J. BARKMAN and V. WESTHOFF.

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Author: Whittaker

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: UOM:39015001563959

Category: Science

Page: 737

View: 824

During the International Botanical Congress in Edinburgh, 1964, Mrs. I. M. WEISBACH-JUNK of The Hague discussed a plan for preparation by her publishing company (Dr. W. Junk B.V.) of an international Handbook of Vegetation Science. She proposed a series that should give a comprehensive survey of the varied directions within this science, and their achievements to date as well as their objectives for the future. The challenge of such an enterprise, and its evident value for the further development of vegetation research, induced the undersigned after some consideration to accept the offer of the honorable but also burdensome task of General Editor. The decision was encouraged by a well formulated and detailed outline for the Handbook worked out by the Dutch phytosociolo gists J. J. BARKMAN and V. WESTHOFF. A circle of scholars from numerous countries was invited by the Dr. Junk Publishing Com pany to The Hague in January 1966 to draw up a list of editors and contributors for the parts of the Handbook. The outline and list have served since for the organization of the Handbook, with no need for major change. The different burdens of editors and authors have compelled quite different timings for completion of the individual sections.

Ordination of Plant Communities

communities broader approaches to description and understanding that are
based on classification are often termed ... more with procedures than with
application to particular communities; this is an account of ordination and
classification, ...

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Author: R.H. Whittaker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400979895

Category: Science

Page: 394

View: 99

A large part of ecological research depends on use of two ap proaches to synthesizing information about natural communities: classification of communities (or samples representing these) into groups, and ordination (or arrangement) of samples in relation to environmental variables. A book published in 1973, 'Ordination and Classification of Communities,' sought to provide, through contributions by an international panel of authors, a coherent treatise on these methods. The book appeared then as Volume 5 of the Handbook of Vegetation Science, for which R. TuxEN is general editor. The desire to make this work more widely available in a less expensive form is one of the reasons for this second edition separating the articles on ordinction and on classification into two volumes. The other reason is the rapid advancement of understanding in the area of indirect ordination-mathematical techniques that seek to use measurements of samples from natural communities to produce arrangements that reveal environmental relationships of these communities. Such is the rate of change in this area that the last chapter on ordination in the first edition is already, 4 or 5 years after it was written, out of date; and new techniques of indirect ordination that could only be mentioned as possibilities in the first edition are becoming prominent in the field. In preparing the second edition the chapter on evaluation of ordinations has been rewritten, a new chapter on recent developments in continuous multivariate techniques has been included, and references to recent work have been added to other chapters.

Quantitative Plant Ecology

Preface to Third Edition Methods of analysing field data on vegetation have
developed so greatly since the last edition was written that some sections ,
especially the treatment of classification and ordination , have become
completely out of ...

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Author: Peter Greig-Smith

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520050800

Category: Science

Page: 359

View: 200

Plant Adaptation and Crop Improvement

Data transformations Dii'= aii + ai'i'- 2aii' (4.71) between a dissimilarity measure
Dii' and a similarity measure aii' existed then classification based on the
dissimilarity measure and an ordination based on the complementary similarity
measure ...

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Author: C.A.B. International

Publisher: IRRI

ISBN: 9780851991085

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 636

View: 461

This book discusses various plant adpatations and techniques for crop improvement.

Valuation of Habitats for Conservation

In the previous two chapters, we described three classification models, the
Habitat Quality model (p. 41-47), the Succession Model (p. 47-52) and the
Habitats Directive Grassland Type model (p. 60-62). These models all use
ordination scores ...

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Author: Rasmus Ejrnæs

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

ISBN: 9789289311328

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 81

View: 142

Dynamic Biogeography

Ordination techniques are not only more efficient and general than classification
techniques , they suffer less from technical restrictions in interpretation .
Methodology of ordination Ordination as a geometrical data representation
assumes that ...

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Author: R. Hengeveld

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521437563

Category: Nature

Page: 249

View: 194

Biogeography is an increasingly important area for ecology, dynamic biogeography being the study of biological patterns and processes on a broad scale both geographically and temporally. In this book, the spatial patterns and processes studied in dynamic biogeography are presented from an ecological perspective. Dynamic Biogeography opens with a survey of the different approaches encountered within the subject. The remainder of the book is arranged into four parts. The first is concerned with patterns of concordance; both quantitative and qualitative classifications are discussed. Geographical trends in species' diversity and biological traits are viewed, with Part 3 leading into areography or the analysis of species ranges. The book is drawn together by an overview of all the scales of variation and a glimpse into the future of biogeography.

Ecological Informatics

We try to elucidate feasibility of artificial neural networks in grouping of
communities as classification and ordination, predicting multivariate community
dynamics, verifying environmental impacts, and revealing organizational aspects
of ...

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Author: Friedrich Recknagel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540434550

Category: Science

Page: 398

View: 137

Ecological Informatics is defined as the design and application of computational techniques for ecological analysis, synthesis, forecasting and management. The book provides an introduction to the scope, concepts and techniques of this newly emerging discipline. It illustrates numerous applications of Ecological Informatics for stream systems, river systems, freshwater lakes and marine systems as well as image recognition at micro and macro scale. Case studies focus on applications of artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and adaptive agents to current ecological management issues such as toxic algal blooms, eutrophication, habitat degradation, conservation of biodiversity and sustainable fishery.

Brackish water phytoplankton of the Flemish lowland

Govaere (1978) found that a combination of clustering and ordination will give
the best information, because errors due to one method will be corrected by the
other. 4.1. Classification techniques Williams (1971) and Govaere (1978) gave a
 ...

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Author: A.G. Caljon

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400965546

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 332

Numerous papers have been published on the animal and algal communities of fresh-water and marine biotopes, and their relation to the physical and chemical factors of their environment. Brackish-water biotopes have been studied much less intensely, presumably due to their limited distribution and to the complexity of their bioco enoses, composed of fresh-water, brackish-water and marine organisms. The reduced size of the species present forms a supplementary difficulty, which is especially pronounced in the algal communities, a major part of which are composed of nanno-phytoplankters. The University of Ghent considered a detailed survey sufficiently attractive to set up because of the high species diversity, the gaps in the knowledge of brackish-water nannophytoplankton at the species and population levels, and the convenient proximity of brackish-water biotopes. Moreover, the brackish-water biotopes proved to be unique, and consist of a series of landlocked creeks, con nected to the sea by means of an underground salt water supply. VII Contents Chapter 1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 2 Study area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. 1. Topographical situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. 2. Historical aspects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. 3. Edaphic factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. 4. Hydrology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. 4. 1. Salinity fluctuations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. 4. 2. Origin of the brownish colour of certain creeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. 4. 3. Hydrography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2. 5. Biotopes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2. 6. Climatic features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Chapter 3 Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3. 1. Sampling procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3. 2. Physical properties, water chemistry, chlorophyll a and phaeophytin a . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3. 3. Phytoplankton samples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3. 4. Periphyton and benthos samples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Alberta Oil Sands

The essence of an ecological analogue system is the classification and
identification of plant associations that are most sensitive to the atmospheric
emissions of concern. An ecosystem classification and ordination was applied to
sites of the ...

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Author: Kevin E. Percy

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 9780080977607

Category: Science

Page: 496

View: 895

At 170 billion barrels, Canada's Oil Sands are the third largest reserves of developable oil in the world. The Oil Sands now produce about 1.6 million barrels per day, with production expected to double by 2025 to about 3.7 million barrels per day. The Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northeastern Alberta is the largest of the three oil sands deposits. Bitumen in the oil sands is recovered through one of two primary methods - mining and drilling. About 20 per cent of the reserves are close to the surface and can be mined using large shovels and trucks. Of concern are the effects of the industrial development on the environment. Both human-made and natural sources emit oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, trace elements and persistent organic compounds. Of additional concern are ground level ozone and greenhouse gases. Because of the requirement on operators to comply with the air quality regulatory policies, and to address public concerns, the not-for-profit, multi-stakeholder Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) has since 1997 been closely monitoring air quality in AOSR. In 2008, WBEA assembled a distinguished group of international scientists who have been conducting measurements and practical research on various aspects of air emissions and their potential effects on terrestrial receptors. This book is a synthesis of the concepts and results of those on-going studies. It contains 19 chapters ranging from a global perspective of energy production, measurement methodologies and behavior of various air pollutants during fossil fuel production in a boreal forest ecosystem, towards designing and deploying a multi-disciplinary, proactive, and long-term environmental monitoring system that will also meet regulatory expectations. Covers measurement of emissions from very large industrial sources in a region with huge international media profile Validation of measurement technologies can be applied globally The new approaches to ecological monitoring described can be applied in other forested regions

Advances and Innovations in Systems Computing Sciences and Software Engineering

Application of Fuzzy Set Ordination and in Pangquangou Nature Reserve, China
Classification to the Study of Plant Communities Jin-tun Zhang1 1College of Life
Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Xinwaidajie 19, Beijing 100875, China.

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Author: Khaled Elleithy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402062643

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 578

View: 170

This book includes a set of rigorously reviewed world-class manuscripts addressing and detailing state-of-the-art research projects in the areas of Computing Sciences, Software Engineering and Systems. The book presents selected papers from the conference proceedings of the International Conference on Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering (SCSS 2006). All aspects of the conference were managed on-line.

Coenoses

CLASSIFICATION AND ORDINATION : THEIR NATURE AND ROLE IN
TAXONOMY AND COMMUNITY STUDIES ' David W . Goodall CSIRO Division of
Wildlife and Rangeland Research , Midland W . A . 6056 , Australia Keywords :
Origins ...

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Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015051185182

Category: Biotic communities

Page:

View: 790

Plant Succession

Both dominance and classification have been used in Fig. 6.1. It will generally be
helpful either to define the states in terms of something practical, such as
dominance, or in terms of a numerical analysis, either using classification or
ordination ...

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Author: D.C. Glenn-Lewin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0412269007

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 426

'Succession' is the term used to describe the phenomenon of changes in vegetational types in both time and space. The subject of the colonization and exploitation of 'new' areas by plants is a key one in ecology and this book summarizes the theoretical arguments currently raging about the topic.

Key Concepts in Geography

The problems of soil classification to define and recognize types or series are
very similar to those for vegetation classification , and use of multivariate analysis
and numerical classification and ordination techniques in this context is still ...

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Author: Sarah Holloway

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 0761973893

Category: Science

Page: 342

View: 288

Defining the key terms that inform the language of geography and define the geographical imagination: space, time, place, scale, landscape, this volume provides definitions of terms from both human and physical geography.

Multivariate Analysis in Community Ecology

Ordination Community ecologists often analyze data by a methodological triad
consisting of direct gradient analysis , ordination , and classification . These three
methods have the common goal of organizing data for purposes of description ...

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Author: Hugh G. Gauch

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521282403

Category: Mathematics

Page: 298

View: 194

A full description of computer-based methods of analysis used to define and solve ecological problems. Multivariate techniques permit summary of complex sets of data and allow investigation of many problems which cannot be tackled experimentally because of practical restraints.

Classification 2nd Edition

For example, the material in the next two sections of this chapter has been
referred to by the terms 'multidimensional scaling' in psychology and 'ordination'
in ecology. This chapter describes several ways of obtaining a graphical rep-
Figure ...

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Author: A.D. Gordon

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1584888539

Category: Mathematics

Page: 272

View: 273

As the amount of information recorded and stored electronically grows ever larger, it becomes increasingly useful, if not essential, to develop better and more efficient ways to summarize and extract information from these large, multivariate data sets. The field of classification does just that-investigates sets of "objects" to see if they can be summarized into a small number of classes comprising similar objects. Researchers have made great strides in the field over the last twenty years, and classification is no longer perceived as being concerned solely with exploratory analyses. The second edition of Classification incorporates many of the new and powerful methodologies developed since its first edition. Like its predecessor, this edition describes both clustering and graphical methods of representing data, and offers advice on how to decide which methods of analysis best apply to a particular data set. It goes even further, however, by providing critical overviews of recent developments not widely known, including efficient clustering algorithms, cluster validation, consensus classifications, and the classification of symbolic data. The author has taken an approach accessible to researchers in the wide variety of disciplines that can benefit from classification analysis and methods. He illustrates the methodologies by applying them to data sets-smaller sets given in the text, larger ones available through a Web site. Large multivariate data sets can be difficult to comprehend-the sheer volume and complexity can prove overwhelming. Classification methods provide efficient, accurate ways to make them less unwieldy and extract more information. Classification, Second Edition offers the ideal vehicle for gaining the background and learning the methodologies-and begin putting these techniques to use.

Meiobenthology

... classification and ordination, where faunal communities are compared with
respect to their specific identities and (relative) quantitative importance. These
methods are exemplified by techniques such as multidimensional scaling
ordination ...

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Author: Olav Giere

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540686613

Category: Science

Page: 527

View: 799

Meiobenthology is the science of the tiny animals that live in huge numbers in all aquatic sediments. This fully revised and enlarged second edition emphasizes new discoveries and developments in this field. Major progress has been made in three general areas: - Systematics, diversity and distribution, - Ecology, food webs, and energy flow, - Environmental aspects, including studies of anthropogenic impacts. The meiobenthos of polar and tropical regions, deep-sea bottoms and hydrothermal vents are now studied in more detail. The high number of species found to survive under such extreme conditions puts them at the forefront of biodiversity studies. Molecular screening methods enable large numbers to be analyzed upon applying reasonable effort. The aim of this book is to synthesize these modern scientific achievements such that meiobenthology can play a key role in aquatic research and in assessing the health of our environment.