Coronaviruses and their Diseases

Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Vol. 218," M. C. Lai, and S. A. Stohlman, eds., Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, (1987). 21.

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Author: David Cavanagh

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781468458237

Category: Medical

Page: 676

View: 700

Interest in the coronaviruses has never been greater. Their economic impact is considerable as they infect humans, livestock, poultry and companion animals. Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) infection of the mouse and rat central nervous systems are the subject of intense study; these investigations are providing insights into the potential role of viruses in human neurological diseases and, more generally, into mechanisms causing neurological damage. The single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes of two species of these enveloped viruses (IBV and MHV) have been cloned completely and one of them (lBV) sequenced in its entirety, revealing a genome size of some 27000 nucleotides. This has made possible more incisive investigations into the nature of those polypeptides, encoded by more than half of the genome, which are likely to contribute, in the main, to RNA polymerase/replicase activity. Intriguingly, ribosomal frameshifting is exhibited within the mRNA coding for these polypeptides. The cloning/sequencing phase of coronavirology for which the 1980's will be partly remembered, has provided a sound framework for furthex: studies of the virus structural proteins and also some provocative insights relevant to these studies. The large spike glycoprotein(s), responsible for membrane fusion and bearing important antigenic sites, varies amazingly in length and composition both within as well as between coronavirus species. Receptors on host cells have been identified. The integral membrane glycoprotein (M) has been shown to use internal hydrophobic sequences to direct translocation within membranes.

Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

Efficacy of an inactivated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine in calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc Vol. 218, No. 12, pp. 1973-1980. Ellis, J.A., Gow, S.P., ...

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Author: Bernhard Resch

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9789533077185

Category: Medical

Page: 248

View: 840

In this online Open Access book on "Human RSV Infections", several distinguished authors contribute their experience in respiratory syncytial virology. A major focus lies on the fascinating pathophysiology of RSV and represents recent and actual work on different mechanisms involved in the complex pathogenesis of the virus. The second section elucidates epidemiologic and diagnostic aspects of RSV infection covering a more clinical view of RSV disease. At last, treatment modalities including the search for a vaccine that is still not in sight are discussed and conclude this book, thus building up a circle that runs from experimental models of RSV related lung disease over clinical aspects of disease to the latest news of therapeutic and prophylactic approaches to human RSV infection.

Epstein Barr Virus and Human Cancer

ISBN 3-540-61037-5 Vol. 218: Berns, Kenneth I.; Giraud, Catherine (Eds.): Adeno–Associated Virus (AAV) Vectors in Gene Therapy. 1996. 38 figs. IX,173 pp.

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Author: K. Takada

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642565151

Category: Science

Page: 236

View: 676

In this book, outstanding researchers from the US and Japan review recent progress in Epstein-Barr virus research. Most people carry EBV in memory B-cells in a latent stage. Many malignancies such as T/NK cell lymphoma, AIDS-associated B-cell lymphoma, gastric carcinoma and Hodgkin's disease have been causally linked to EBV. The development of molecular biology technique has allowed us to study the roles of individual EBV genes that act in the maintenance and disruption of EBV latency.

The Mechanisms of Neuronal Damage in Virus Infections of the Nervous System

ISBN 3-540-61037-5 Vol. 218: Berns, Kenneth I.; Giraud, Catherine (Eds.): Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) Vectors in Gene Therapy. 1996. 38 figs. IX,173 pp.

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Author: Georg Gosztonyi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783662103562

Category: Medical

Page: 280

View: 807

It has been recognized that viruses can induce neuronal damage by a variety of mechanisms. This volume summarizes, for the first time, the various ways that neurons can degenerate under the influence of viral infection, ranging from acute necrosis and virus-induced apoptosis to chronic damage in persistent infections. The mechanisms of neuronal latency are dealt with as well. The volume also includes chapters that review the chronic damage caused by viral proteins that interfere with differentiated functions of the neuron, including signaling by neurotransmitters and signal transduction by trophic factors. Other chapters deal with the controversial role of cellular immune reactions, which may be helpful in controlling infection, but may also be detrimental to the host nervous system. The specific mechanisms of damage involved in retroviral infections and in prion diseases of the nervous system are reviewed, and finally how autoimmune diseases can lead to neuronal damage.

Avian Cellular Immunology

... New methods for detecting cellular transforming genes , in RNA Tumor Virus , Vol . 218 , Weiss , R. , Teich , N. , Varmus , H. , and Coffin , J. , Eds .

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Author: Jagdev M. Sharma

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0849368332

Category: Medical

Page: 216

View: 635

Knowledge regarding avian cellular immunity has expanded rapidly within the last few years and new information continues to accumulate. It is now a well-established fact that cell-mediated immunity plays a major role in the defense against neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases in chickens. The principle objective of Avian Cellular Immunology is to compile the latest information available on various aspects of avian cellular immunity. The book contains chapters written by leading experts in the field and covers topics including cell surface markers, T-cell immunity, natural immune functions, the role of macrophages in cellular immune functions, cellular immune suppression and tolerance, cellular immune systems in avian species other than chickens, the role of cellular immunity in neoplastic and non-neoplastic viral diseases, cell-mediated immune mechanisms in bacterial and parasitic infections, and autoimmune disorders.

Marek s Disease

ISBN 3-540-61037-5 Vol. 218: Berns, Kenneth I.; Giraud, Catherine (Eds.): Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) Vectors in Gene Therapy. 1996. 38 figs. IX,173 pp.

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Author: K. Hirai

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642568633

Category: Medical

Page: 296

View: 547

Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a herpesvirus which causes a lymphoproliferative disorder of the domestic chicken worldwide. This serious economical problem caused by MDV was mostly solved by development of an effective vaccine against MDV. The development of live vaccines against the disease is remarkable as it has led to the first example of a commercially available vaccine against cancer as well as against diseases caused by herpesviruses. This volume gives an overview on many aspects of MDV research and summarizes recent advances in the field. The topics include the history, biology,and molecular biology of MDV, pathogenesis, vaccinal immunity, immune response, genetic resistance and development of recombinant polyvalent vaccines. It is hoped that this volume will make an important contribution towards the control of infectious diseases.

Coronavirus vol 3

... then 50 million dead in Russia alone and they didn't even have coronavirus. ... challenges Fauci, health officials over this coronavirus precaution: 218.

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Author: Eric Thomsen

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 9781648260964

Category:

Page:

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COVID 19 and Human Rights

218–222 . ... Nature Editorials , 2020 , Coronavirus Drugs Trials Must Get Bigger and more Collaborative ' , Nature , vol . 581 , no .

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Author: Morten Kjaerum

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000411546

Category: Political Science

Page: 348

View: 799

This timely collection brings together original explorations of the COVID-19 pandemic and its wide-ranging, global effects on human rights. The contributors argue that a human rights perspective is necessary to understand the pervasive consequences of the crisis, while focusing attention on those being left behind and providing a necessary framework for the effort to 'build back better'. Expert contributors to this volume address interconnections between the COVID-19 crisis and human rights to equality and non-discrimination, including historical responses to pandemics, populism and authoritarianism, and the rights to health, information, water and the environment. Highlighting the dangerous potential for derogations from human rights, authors further scrutinize the human rights compliance of new legislation and policies in relation to issues such as privacy, protection of persons with disabilities, freedom of expression, and access to medicines. Acknowledging the pandemic as a defining moment for human rights, the volume proposes a post-crisis human rights agenda to engage civil society and government at all levels in concrete measures to roll back increasing inequality. With rich examples, new thinking, and provocative analyses of human rights, COVID-19, pandemics, crises, and inequality, this book will be of key interest to scholars, students, and practitioners in all areas of human rights, global governance, and public health, as well as others who are ready to embark on an exploration of these complex challenges.

Coronavirus vol 7

... Italien und dem Vereinigten Königreich. Beim. Die britische Ryanair Maschine musste wieder umkehren. Testing for the Wuhan virus, image:GTVM92. 218.

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Author: Eric Thomsen

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 9781648260131

Category:

Page:

View: 451

An International Perspective on the Future of Research in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Jones JF., Kulkarni PS., Butera ST, & Reeves W. (2005) GB-virus-C- a virus ... BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol. ... 218, 1125-1127 Prins JB., van der Meer JWM.

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Author: Christopher R. Snell

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9789535100720

Category: Medical

Page: 116

View: 888

While the chapters in this book are a long way from solving the enigma that is CFS, they do represent important attempts to understand this complex and perplexing disease. A common theme in them all is CFS as a multisystem disease with the possibility of more than one cause and influenced by a variety of interacting factors. Further, they acknowledge the reality of CFS for persons with this disease and the importance of finding causes, treatments and ultimately a cure. As advanced biomedical research techniques are increasingly applied to the study of CFS, it is surely only a matter of time before biomarkers are identified, etiologies understood, and remedies devised.

New Scientist

genes that control the virus's ability to multiply come from the bird strain, ... threatens the lizard's rospects of survrval FScience, vol 218, p 692).

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Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 72

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New Scientist magazine was launched in 1956 "for all those men and women who are interested in scientific discovery, and in its industrial, commercial and social consequences". The brand's mission is no different today - for its consumers, New Scientist reports, explores and interprets the results of human endeavour set in the context of society and culture.

Coronavirus vol 5

For most people, the virus causes only mild or moderate symptoms, such as fever and cough. For some, especially older adults and people with existing health ...

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Author: Eric Thomsen

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 9781648261138

Category:

Page:

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Coronavirus vol 2

... announcement came after he declared a national emergency over the coronavirus pandemic, ... In addition to the updated guidance on prayer in schools,. 218.

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Author: Eric Thomsen

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 9781648260902

Category:

Page:

View: 519

Scientific Report Research Institute of Scripps Clinic

In : Proceedings of the Third International Coronavirus Symposium , Asilomar , CA , vol . 218. Lai and Stohlman ( eds . ) Plenum Press , New York , Vol ...

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Author: Research Institute of Scripps Clinic

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015072168605

Category: Allergy

Page:

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Transcriptional Corepressors Mediators of Eukaryotic Gene Repression

ISBN 3-540-61037-5 Vol. 218: Berns, Kenneth I.; Giraud, Catherine (Eds.): Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) Vectors in Gene Therapy. 1996. 38 figs. IX,173 pp.

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Author: Martin L. Privalsky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783662105955

Category: Medical

Page: 190

View: 846

Corepressors are newly discovered assemblies of proteins that play essential roles in eukaryotic gene regulation. Recent discoveries about corepressors have provided new insights into the molecular basis of gene regulation, and have established surprising connections between the mechanisms of action of a wide variety of transcriptional regulators. The reviews in this volume critically discuss the nature, mechanisms of action, and physiological roles of corepressors in a diverse assortment of biological systems. Both basic and clinical investigators will be able to find relevant information. The comprehensive nature of the compilation, and the breadth of the reviews, are intended to provide the reader with an excellent introduction to the newly emergent and rapidly-growing field of corepressor research. A valuable and detailed reference guide.

Nuclear Export of Viral RNAs

IX , 224 pp . ISBN 3-540-61037-5 Vol . 218 : Berns , Kenneth I .; Giraud , Catherine ( Eds . ) : Adeno - Associated Virus ( AAV ) Vectors in Gene Therapy .

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Author: J. Hauber

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540412786

Category: Science

Page: 134

View: 871

In eukaryotic cells, the nuclear genome and its transcriptional apparatus is separated from the site of protein synthesis by the nuclear envelope. Thus, a constant flow of proteins and nucleic acids has to cross the nuclear envelope in both directions. This transport in and out of the nucleus is mediated by nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and occurs in an energy and signal-dependent manner. Thus, nucleocytoplasmic translocation of macro molecules across the nuclear envelope appears to be a highly specific and regulated process. Viruses that replicate their genome in the cell nucleus are therefore forced to develop efficient ways to deal with the intracellulZlr host cell transport machinery. Historically, investigation of Polyomavirus replication allowed identification ofsequences that mediate nuclear import, which led subsequently to our detailed understanding of the cellular factors that are involved in nuclear import. Transport ofmacromolecules in the opposite direction, however, is less well understood. The investigation of retroviral gene expression in recent years pro vided the first insights into the cellular mechanisms that regulate nuclear export. In particular, the detailed dissection of the function of the human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-I) Rev trans-activator protein identified CRMI, as a hona fide nuclear export receptor. CRM I appears to be involved in the nucleocytoplasmic translocation of the vast majority of viral and cellular proteins that have subsequently been found to contain a Rev-type leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES).

Pore Forming Toxins

IX , 224 pp . ISBN 3-540-61037-5 Vol . 218 : Berns , Kenneth I .; Giraud , Catherine ( Eds . ) : Adeno - Associated Virus ( AAV ) Vectors in Gene Therapy .

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Author: Gisou van der Goot

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540413863

Category: Science

Page: 168

View: 513

Pore-forming toxins are virulence factors produced by a great variety of pathogenic bacteria ranging from the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus to the Gram-negative Helicobacter pylory. The recent studies reviewed in this volume describe the progress that has been made in dissecting the different steps of the mode of action of these proteins which generally include binding to specific cell surface receptors, oligomerization into ring like structures and membrane perforation.

Clostridium difficile

Vol . 218 : Berns , Kenneth I .; Giraud , Catherine ( Eds . ) : Adeno - Associated Virus ( AAV ) Vectors in Gene Therapy . 1996 . 38 figs . IX , 173 pp .

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Author: K. Aktories

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540672915

Category: Medical

Page: 143

View: 674

Clostridium difficile has been recognized as the cause of a broad spectrum of enteric disease ranging from mild antibiotic-associated diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis. This volume gives new insights into the microbiology, diagnostics and epidemiology of Clostridium difficile and describes recent strategies in treatment of diseases caused by this agent. Main parts of the volume are devoted to Clostridium difficile toxins A and B which are the major virulence factors. The molecular biology, biochemistry, pharmacology and cell biology of these toxins which are the prototypes of a new family of large clostridial cytotoxins is described in great detail. Clostridium difficile toxins act as glucosyltransferases to inactivate small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family which are involved in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and various signaling processes.

Lymphoid Organogenesis

IX , 224 pp . ISBN 3-540-61037-5 Vol . 218 : Berns , Kenneth I .; Giraud , Catherine ( Eds . ) : Adeno - Associated Virus ( AAV ) Vectors in Gene Therapy .

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Author: Fritz Melchers

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540675698

Category: Medical

Page: 215

View: 716

It has been clear for a long time that after transplantation of a lymphoid organ, hematopoietic stem cells can regenerate the compartments of the organ, provided that the rest of its architecture - the strome, the epithelia and the vessels - is intact. Ahead lies the even greater challenge to assemble also these other architectural elements of a lymphoid organ by transplanting stem cells. The workshop on lymphoid organogenesis was convened to review current knowledge of and experimental skills involved in this grand project to build a lymphoid organ from its individual cellular components.