Electrodeposition from Ionic Liquids

For electroplating purposes, ionic liquids show several attractive properties, such
as large electrochemical windows, specific solvent characteristics, and extremely
low vapor pressures compared to ordinary solvents. When used as base ...

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Author: Frank Endres

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527682720

Category: Science

Page: 548

View: 538

Edited by distinguished experts in this expanding field and with specialist contributions, this overview is the first of its kind to focus on electrodeposition from ionic liquids. This second edition has been completely revised and updated with approximately 20% new content and has been expanded by five chapters to cover the following topics: -Bulk and Interface Theory -Nanoscale Imaging including AFM, In situ STM and UHV-STM -Impedance Spectroscopy -Process Scale-up including Brighteners -Speciation and Redox Properties. The result is essential reading for electrochemists, materials scientists, chemists in industry, physical chemists, chemical engineers, inorganic and organic chemists.

Electrochemistry in Ionic Liquids

This is a set of two books dedicated to presenting the latest novel and advanced research from around the world in this exciting area.

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Author: Angel A. J. Torriero

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319151328

Category: Science

Page: 275

View: 633

This is a set of two books dedicated to presenting the latest novel and advanced research from around the world in this exciting area. These books highlight the important properties of electrochemistry in ionic liquids – as opposed to the more commonly used aqueous and organic environments – and the many applications. Readers will find 20 chapters gathered in two books : Electrochemistry in Ionic Liquids – Volume 1, Fundamentals: This book critically discusses electrode-electrolyte interfacial processes, reference electrodes, ultramicroelectrode voltammetry and scanning electrochemical microscopy, semi-integral and convolution voltammetry, and small-angle X-ray scattering coupled with voltammetry. The structure and properties of protic ionic liquids, deep-eutectic solvents, task-specific ionic liquids, polymeric ion gels, and lithium-ion solvation, useful for electrochemical application is also critically discussed. Electrochemistry in Ionic Liquids – Volume 2, Applications: The major topics covered in this book include electrodeposition and electroless deposition, voltammetry of adhered microparticles, electrochemistry of organic and organometallic compounds, electrocatalytic reactions, oxygen reduction reaction, ionic liquids in surface protection and lubrication, current industrial application of ionic liquids, and challenges, issues and recycling methods of ionic liquids in industrial developments.

Nanoscale Electrodeposition of Ultrathin Magnetic Ni Films and of the Compound Semiconductors AlSb and ZnSb from Ionic Liquids

This thesis focuses on the 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of the metals Ni and Sb as well as the electrodeposition of the compound semiconductors AlSb and ZnSb at the electrified ionic liquid/Au(111) interface.

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Author: Olivier Mann

Publisher: Cuvillier Verlag

ISBN: 9783736925045

Category: Science

Page: 152

View: 891

This thesis focuses on the 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of the metals Ni and Sb as well as the electrodeposition of the compound semiconductors AlSb and ZnSb at the electrified ionic liquid/Au(111) interface. These investigations were performed at the nanometer and partly the atomic scale. For this aim, the in situ electrochemical scanning probe microscopy (SPM) technique combined with conventional electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperomerty were employed. In order to investigate the purity of the deposited films X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method (XPS) has also been used. The electrodeposition of the compound semiconductors AlSb and ZnSb required the use of ionic liquids, AlCl3-[C4mim]+Cl− and ZnCl2-[C4mim]+Cl−, respectively, since these latter possess sufficiently large electrochemical windows. The main results of this thesis can be summarized as follows: A pronounced adsorption of anions on Au(111) for both ionic liquid is observed at anodic potentials above the underdeposition potential (UPD) of the metals; the structure of the respective adsorption films could be clarified for the first time. Thus, an incommensurate c(p×2√3) structure was found for adsorbed AlCl4− whereas the ZnCl3− layer exhibits the characteristics of a Moirée-like pattern. In the overpotential region (OPD) of the 3D deposition of Ni (-0.25 V vs Ni/Ni2+) in an AlCl3-[C4mim]+Cl− melt, a new morphology of Ni clusters could be obtained which formation follows an instantaneous nucleation and growth process. For this a complete monolayer of Ni was first deposited on Au(111) followed by a direct jump of the potential to -0.25 V. Thereby result Ni Clusters of cylindrical shape presenting a diameter of ~ 10 nm and an aspect ratio of ~ 2 in a 5 mM Ni2+ solution. They are characterised by a dense packing and an orientation in one direction which is indicative of a magnetic interaction between the Ni clusters in concordance with the aspect ratio value. These results are therefore of application interest. A typical (√3 × √3)R30° structure of the first monolayer is observed for the Sb UPD deposition in both ionic liquids. A second antimony layer can be formed under UPD conditions. In the OPD region different morphologies of the Sb deposits can be obtained depending on the deposition procedure. When the potential is continuously stepped to -0.1 V vs Al/Al3+ Sb nanostripes are formed whereas randomly dispersed small clusters of spherical shape are found if the potential is jumped from 0.0 V to -0.3 V vs Al/Al(III). These observations are consistent with appropriate investigations in the literature in which aqueous electrolytes were used. For the first time the deposition of compound semiconductors on the nanometer scale was successfully performed by using ionic liquids as electrolytes. A Zn-based and an Al-based ionic liquid were used for the formation of ZnSb (-0.9 V vs Pt/Pt(II) quasi-reference) and AlSb (-1.1 V vs Al/Al3+), respectively. In both cases spherical clusters presenting a diameter of ~ 10-20 nm were obtained whose electronic structures were clarified in situ by means of scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). With this size of clusters the band gaps of 2.0 ± 0.2 eV (AlSb) and 0.6 ± 0.1 eV (ZnSb) of the respective bulk phases could be reproduced. First experiments of the respective n- and p-doping of the clusters through the variation of the deposition potential in the vicinity of the stoichiometric semiconductor compound potential are reported.

Electrochemistry of Lanthanum in Room Temperature Ionic Liquid EMIM DCA

In nuclear engineering, the accumulation of lanthanides, as the main fission products, has detrimental effects on the efficiency of nuclear fuel because of strong neutron absorption properties.

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Author: Ian C. Ehrsam

Publisher:

ISBN: 0438393139

Category: Electrochemistry

Page: 114

View: 957

In nuclear engineering, the accumulation of lanthanides, as the main fission products, has detrimental effects on the efficiency of nuclear fuel because of strong neutron absorption properties. Therefore, the lanthanides need to be separated from actinides, a difficult task due to the similarity of chemical and electrochemical properties. One of the avenues for reprocessing nuclear fuels is electrometallurgy from ionic liquids. Ionic liquids can be classified according to temperature of application into (1) high temperature and (2) low temperature. High temperature ionic liquids are eutectic inorganic salts, such as LiCl-KCl. They are operational in the range 400 -- 600 °C. Low temperature ionic liquids are made of an organic (cation) and inorganic (anion) components. They are fully ionized, stable, conductive and liquid in a much lower temperature range than ionic liquids based on inorganic salts, typically 25 - 100 °C. For that reason, they are often termed as room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). Due to lanthanide's large electronegative deposition potential (~ -2.4 V vs SHE) traditional aqueous electrodeposition processes cannot be used as hydrogen evolution from water occurs prior to any lanthanide metal deposition. RTIL's provide a unique solution to this problem as these salts are liquid at room temperature and provide a wide electrochemical window (up to 5 V) for deposition of electronegative metals without the detrimental effects from hydrogen ion reduction, as present in aqueous systems. The goal of this study was to examine the electrochemistry and deposition morphology of lanthanum metal in the RTILs 1-ethyl-3- methylimidazolium dicyanamide (EMIM-DCA) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (BMIM-DCA) ionic liquids. These particular RTILs are stable in the cathodic direction up to -2.4V vs Ag/AgCl, providing the adequate stability to observe the electrodeposition of lanthanum metal. Reduction mechanisms were characterized on the basics of cyclic voltammetry technique. For the determination of kinetic parameters, such as diffusion rate constant and reaction rate constant the rotating disk technique was employed. The effects of water and ethanol concentration were studied in details. The role of water was important to determine in order to evaluate its effect during its eventual absorption from open atmosphere. Ethanol gained in importance because of the solubility of rare earth salts in alcohols, as the only viable route toward solubilization of rare earths in ionic liquids. The diffusion coefficient of water in EMIM-DCA was calculated to be 7.6x10−7 cm2/sec. The reduction of water on platinum in EMIM-DCA exhibited sluggish kinetics and the rate constant was calculated to be 2.15x10 −5 cm/sec. Both water and ethanol additions slightly reduced the stability window of the RTIL. Morphology of lanthanum electrodeposits, observed around -2.0V, was characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thin dense films were generally produced. However, the organic components of ionic liquids were also intermixed with metallic deposit, which were removed by washing with alcohol.

Ionic Liquids

In this volume, recent advances in a number of these different areas are reported and reviewed, thus granting some appreciation for the future that ionic liquid research holds and affording inspiration for those who have not previously ...

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Author: Scott Handy

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9789535129011

Category: Science

Page: 606

View: 723

Ionic liquids, including the newer subcategory of deep eutectic solvents, continue to attract a great deal of research attention in an even increasing number of areas, including traditional areas such as synthesis (organic and materials), electrochemistry, and physical property studies and predictions, as well as less obvious areas such as lubrication and enzymatic transformations. In this volume, recent advances in a number of these different areas are reported and reviewed, thus granting some appreciation for the future that ionic liquid research holds and affording inspiration for those who have not previously considered the application of ionic liquids in their area of interest.

Molten Salts 15

This symposium was dedicated to the significant and ground breaking accomplishments of Robert A. Osteryoung in the area of molten salts and ionic liquids.

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Author: Robert A. Mantz

Publisher: The Electrochemical Society

ISBN: 9781566775922

Category: Electronic books

Page: 615

View: 660

This symposium was dedicated to the significant and ground breaking accomplishments of Robert A. Osteryoung in the area of molten salts and ionic liquids. This symposium provided an international and interdisciplinary forum centered on innovative basic and applied research performed in molten salts and ionic liquids. Contributed papers were solicited in all areas of biology, chemistry, electrochemistry, electrochemical engineering, and physics related to molten salt research.

Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids 16

The papers included in this issue of ECS Transactions were originally presented in the symposium ¿Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids 16¿, held during the PRiME 2008 joint international meeting of The Electrochemical Society and The ...

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Author: D. Fox

Publisher: The Electrochemical Society

ISBN: 9781566777346

Category: Science

Page: 599

View: 770

The papers included in this issue of ECS Transactions were originally presented in the symposium ¿Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids 16¿, held during the PRiME 2008 joint international meeting of The Electrochemical Society and The Electrochemical Society of Japan, with the technical cosponsorship of the Japan Society of Applied Physics, the Korean Electrochemical Society, the Electrochemistry Division of the Royal Australian Chemical Institute, and the Chinese Society of Electrochemistry. This meeting was held in Honolulu, Hawaii, from October 12 to 17, 2008.

Application of Ionic Liquids on Rare Earth Green Separation and Utilization

This book comprehensively details the applications of ionic liquids in rare earth green separation and utilization based on the unique interactions of ionic liquids with rare earth ions.

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Author: Ji Chen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783662475102

Category: Science

Page: 257

View: 501

This book comprehensively details the applications of ionic liquids in rare earth green separation and utilization based on the unique interactions of ionic liquids with rare earth ions. It consists of nine chapters demonstrating the synthesis and properties of ionic liquids, coordination chemistry of ionic liquids and rare earth, ionic liquids as diluents, extractants, adsorption resins for rare earth extraction and separation, electrodeposition of rare earth metals in ionic liquids, and preparation of rare earth material with the aid of ionic liquids. It is both interesting and useful to chemists, metallurgists and graduate students working on fundamental research of ionic liquids as well as professionals in the rare earth industry. It provides considerable insights into green chemistry and sustainable processes for rare earth separation in order to meet the environmental challenge of rare earth metallurgy around the globe, especially in China. Ji Chen is a Professor of Chemistry at the Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids

This important new work presents twenty-six chapters contributed by a panel of experts in their respective fields, covering the structure, dynamics, chemistry, and interfacial and thermodynamic properties of molten salts and ionic liquids.

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Author: Marcelle Gaune-Escard

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470947760

Category: Science

Page: 250

View: 637

For many years, the related fields of molten salts and ionic liquids have drifted apart, to their mutual detriment. Both molten salts and ionic liquids are liquid salts containing only ions - all that is different is the temperature! Both fields involve the study of Coulombic fluids for academic and industrial purposes; both employ the same principles; both require skilled practitioners; both speak the same language; all then that is truly different is their semantics, and how superficial is that? The editors of this book, recognising that there was so much knowledge, both empirical and theoretical, which can be passed from the molten salt community to the ionic liquid community, and vice versa, organised a landmark meeting in Tunisia, designed to bridge the gap and heal the rift. Leaders from both communities met for a week for a mutual exchange, with a high tutorial content intermixed with cutting edge findings. This volume is a condensate of the principal offerings of that week, and emphasises the success which was achieved. Indeed, four future biannual meetings, under the title of “EUCHEM Conferences on Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids”, have now been planned as a direct result of this meeting of minds. Topics discussed in this volume include structure, dynamics, electrochemistry, interfacial and thermodynamic properties, spectroscopy, synthesis, and theoretical studies. Experimental and theoretical methods for investigating these data are elaborated, as are techniques for data collection and analysis. This book represents the first serious discussion on the transfer of these methods and techniques between the differing temperature regimes, and is a major contribution to the future of both fields.

Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids 17

The main topics discussed in this volume include solution properties; reactions and separations; biochemical, biomedical, and green processes; electrodeposition; electrochemical power; corrosion and other electrochemical processes; and ...

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Author: D. M. Fox

Publisher: The Electrochemical Society

ISBN: 9781566778268

Category:

Page: 694

View: 375

This issue of ECS Transactions presents the latest research on systems and processes involving molten salts and room temperature ionic liquids. The studies compiled include both basic and applied research covering a wide range of topics. The main topics discussed in this volume include solution properties; reactions and separations; biochemical, biomedical, and green processes; electrodeposition; electrochemical power; corrosion and other electrochemical processes; and nuclear chemistry.

Ionic Liquids

schemes involve liquid / liquid extraction steps , although electrochemical
deposition from high - temperature molten salts ... Direct electrodeposition from
ionic liquid solution provides a valuable “ back door ” for the separations process
 ...

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Author: Natalia Plechkova

Publisher: Amer Chemical Society

ISBN: CHI:092148608

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 458

View: 944

This book reflects recent developments in the rapidly-expanding field of ionic liquids, and looks ahead to its future. An exploration of new properties of ionic liquids, and their use in biochemistry, medicine, and nanochemistry, is included.

Electrodeposition from Deep Eutectic Solvents

Deep eutectic solvents constitute a class of compounds sharing many similarities with properly named ionic liquids. The accepted definition of ionic liquid is a fluid (liquid for T

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Author: R. Bernasconi

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1154246037

Category: Science

Page:

View: 237

Deep eutectic solvents constitute a class of compounds sharing many similarities with properly named ionic liquids. The accepted definition of ionic liquid is a fluid (liquid for T

Ionic Liquids in Synthesis

" Journal of the American Chemical Society "This is a very impressive and up-to-date first book on ionic liquids, invaluable to newcomers and to those active in the field." Organic Process Research and Development

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Author: Peter Wasserscheid

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527621200

Category: Science

Page: 776

View: 894

The second, completely revised and enlarged edition of what has become the standard reference work in this fascinating field brings together the latest developments, supplemented by numerous practical tips, providing those working in both research and industry with an indispensable source of information. New contributions have been added, to reflect the fact that industrial processes are already established, and ionic liquids are now commercially available. A must for everyone working in the field.

Electrochemical Aspects of Ionic Liquids

This Second Edition continues to present the most up-to-date information on this rapidly growing field, offering nonspecialists an overview of fundamentals while providing researchers and advanced students with clear descriptions of the ...

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Author: Hiroyuki Ohno

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118003349

Category: Science

Page: 504

View: 890

The second edition is based on the original book, which has been revised, updated and expanded in order to cover the latest information on this rapidly growing field. The book begins with a description of general and electrochemical properties of ionic liquids and continues with a discussion of applications in biochemistry, ionic devices, functional design and polymeric ionic liquids. The new edition includes new chapters on Li ion Batteries and Actuators, as well as a revision of existing chapters to include a discussion on purification and the effects of impurities, adsorption of ionic liquids on interfaces and on the electrochemical double layer, among other topics.

Ionic Liquids

Despite their presence , the achievement of very high current densities to
accelerate throughput in the electrodeposition process has not been forthcoming
, and the search for new additives is continuing . The use of ionic liquids , either
as an ...

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Author: American Chemical Society

Publisher: Amer Chemical Society

ISBN: UOM:39015055441094

Category: Science

Page: 474

View: 839

"Contains the key papers presented at the American Chemical Society (ACS) national meeting symposium 'Green (or Greener) Industrial Applications of Ionic Liquids', held in San Diego, California, April 1-5, 2001"--Page xiii.

Applications of Ionic Liquids in Science and Technology

This volume, of a two volume set on ionic liquids, focuses on the applications of ionic liquids in a growing range of areas.

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Author: Scott Handy

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9789533076058

Category: Science

Page: 530

View: 110

This volume, of a two volume set on ionic liquids, focuses on the applications of ionic liquids in a growing range of areas. Throughout the 1990s, it seemed that most of the attention in the area of ionic liquids applications was directed toward their use as solvents for organic and transition-metal-catalyzed reactions. Certainly, this interest continues on to the present date, but the most innovative uses of ionic liquids span a much more diverse field than just synthesis. Some of the main topics of coverage include the application of RTILs in various electronic applications (batteries, capacitors, and light-emitting materials), polymers (synthesis and functionalization), nanomaterials (synthesis and stabilization), and separations. More unusual applications can be noted in the fields of biomass utilization, spectroscopy, optics, lubricants, fuels, and refrigerants. It is hoped that the diversity of this volume will serve as an inspiration for even further advances in the use of RTILs.

Exploration of Electrodeposition of Aluminum nickel Alloys and Multilayers in Organic Chloroaluminate Ionic Liquids

Aluminum-nickel (Al-Ni) alloys and Al/Ni bilayers were successfully electrodeposited from AlCl3-EMIM-NiCl2 electrolyte at room temperature. Dissolution of NiCl2 was shown to be favorable in Lewis basic (with molar ratio of AlCl3

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Author: Ammar Bin Waqar

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1102274840

Category: Alloy plating

Page: 51

View: 312

Aluminum-nickel (Al-Ni) alloys and Al/Ni bilayers were successfully electrodeposited from AlCl3-EMIM-NiCl2 electrolyte at room temperature. Dissolution of NiCl2 was shown to be favorable in Lewis basic (with molar ratio of AlCl3

Materials for Sustainable Energy

EMI cation TFSI anion S CH3 + N N N– S F3C CF3 OO OO CH3
Electrodeposition Ionic liquids are superior media for the electrodeposition of
metals and semiconductors, and have an unprecedented potential to
revolutionize electroplating.

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Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: 9789814464338

Category:

Page:

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Electrocrystallization in Nanotechnology

Clearly structured in two main parts, this book reviews the fundamentals and applications of electrocrystallization processes in nanotechnology.

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Author: Georgi T. Staikov

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527610204

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 279

View: 951

Here, the well-known editor in the field of electrocrystallization and his team of excellent international authors guarantee the high quality of the contributions. Clearly structured in two main parts, this book reviews the fundamentals and applications of electrocrystallization processes in nanotechnology. The first part, "Fundamentals" covers the basic concepts of electrocrystallization, computer simulations of low-dimensional metal phase formation, electrodeposition in templates and nanocavities, nanoscale electrocrystallization from ionic liquids, and superconformal electrodeposition of metals. The second part, "Preparation and properties of nanostructures", includes nanostructuring by STM tip induced localized electrocrystallization of metals, fabrication of ordered anodic nanoporous Al2O3 layers and their application, preparation of nanogaps, nanocontacts, nanowires and nanodots by selective electrochemical deposition, as well as electrodeposition of magnetic nanostructures and multilayers

Plating and Surface Finishing

Currently , Ms . McCrabb is leading Faraday ' s efforts in the development of
electrodeposition processes for VLSI ... characterization , and electrochemical
studies of multiple room temperature ionic liquids for application as electrolytes in
 ...

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Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSD:31822036935245

Category: Electroplating

Page:

View: 606