Hot Mixed Lime and Traditional Mortars

However, despite the 1975 'lime revival' there remains a deficit in research into the most-used traditional mortars. This book seeks to redress the balance.


Author: Nigel Copsey

Publisher: The Crowood Press

ISBN: 9781785005565

Category: House & Home

Page: 176

View: 445

Traditional mortars are eminently workable, effectively porous, economic in use and appropriately durable. Used in buildings for thousands of years, these materials are ideal for repair and conservation work. Unlike cement or modern hydraulic lime, their routine use would make a significant contribution in the struggle against climate change. However, despite the 1975 'lime revival' there remains a deficit in research into the most-used traditional mortars. This book seeks to redress the balance. Drawing upon historic literature, material science and industry case studies, topics covered include: a historical overview of traditional mortars; slaking and mixing hot mixed lime mortars; the essentials of pozzolans, aggregates and lime tempering; plasters, lime washes and sheltercoats, and finally, the revival of interest in the use of like-for-like and compatible mortars. A comprehensive book on the true understanding of hot mixing limes and traditional mortars for the twenty-first century. It is fully illustrated with 286 colour photographs and 11 line artworks. Nigel Copsey is an accredited conservator-restorer and works as a Research Associate in the Dept of Archaeology, University of York.

Historic Mortars

Their presence was rather limited in comparison to some hot mixed mortars prepared from lime calcined by a traditional way at a low temperature (around 900°C) in a wood fired kiln [2]. The irregularity of their shape can be one of the ...


Author: Jan Válek

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400746350

Category: Social Science

Page: 464

View: 408

This volume focuses on research and practical issues connected with mortars on historic structures. The book is divided into four sections: Characterisation of Historic Mortars, Repair Mortars and Design Issues, Experimental Research into Properties of Repair Mortars, and Assessment and Testing. The papers present the latest work of researchers in their field. The individual contributions were selected from the contributions to the 2nd Historic Mortars Conference, which took place in Prague, September, 22-24, 2010. All papers were reviewed and improved as necessary before publication. This peer review process by the editors resulted in the 34 individual contributions included in here. One extra paper reviewing and summarising State-of-the-Art knowledge covered by this publication was added as a starting and navigational point for the reader. The editors believe that having these papers in print is important and they hope that it will stimulate further research into historic mortars and related subjects.

Survey and Assessment of Traditionally Constructed Brickwork

immediately, while it is hot.” The use of hot mortar, whereby the quicklime was slaked together with the aggregate and the resulting mix used immediately to bed bricks, is one likely to be found in traditional brickwork.


Author: Moses Jenkins

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000550771

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 246

View: 672

The principal aim of this book is to improve the practice of surveying traditionally constructed brickwork. It aims to ensure that those who have a cause to survey buildings constructed of traditional (pre-1919) brickwork have a well-developed, clear methodology for undertaking effective, comprehensive surveys. The book will help readers gain the proper level of knowledge, expertise and skill to be able to survey these buildings correctly; to recognise not just defects within the brickwork itself, but also, crucially, the cause of these defects. Experienced author Moses Jenkins presents a clear and concise methodology for the survey of brickwork in existing buildings with coverage including: identifying repair needs understanding the cause of decay within brickwork ascertaining the age and significance of traditionally constructed brickwork, and identifying significant technical and decorative features. Despite the extensive use of traditionally constructed brick worldwide, the knowledge and expertise to properly survey buildings of this type has not, to date, been laid out in a reliable and methodical way. This book addresses this deficiency and provides an invaluable resource to all those who survey and assess buildings constructed of brickwork. This includes building professionals such as architects, surveyors, engineers and those working in building conservation, but also construction managers and students studying built environment disciplines.

Natural Building Techniques

2. 3. 4. Nigel Copsey, Hot Mixed Lime and Traditional Mortars: A Practical Guide to Their Use in Conservation and Repair (The Crowood Press, 2019). 5.


Author: Tom Woolley

Publisher: The Crowood Press

ISBN: 9780719840487

Category: House & Home


View: 982

Natural materials are increasingly being valued for their use in a wide range of techniques and solutions, not just for building cabins in the countryside, but also for housing, schools and city structures. As the need to respond to climate change becomes a serious requirement for all building projects, so too does our understanding of how these bio-based and renewable materials can help to reduce carbon emissions. With convincing evidence that natural materials work as well as, if not better than, conventional materials, this helpful guide offers an outline of many of the materials, products and methods of construction that are available, equipping readers with confidence to create healthy, ecological homes. This comprehensive book will be of interest to self-builders, home owners, architects, housing developers and specifiers, as well as environmentalists, eco builders and campaigners who want to reduce the impact of construction on the planet.

Old House Eco Handbook

Right: Calcium carbonate, here in the form of limestone, forms the basis of all lime building products. Hydrated lime, or 'bagged' ... Above: Quicklime is slaked with sand to form a traditional mortar, in a process called hot mixing.


Author: Roger Hunt

Publisher: White Lion Publishing

ISBN: 9780711247161

Category: House & Home

Page: 192

View: 287

How should we go about making old houses energy efficient without devaluing future sustainability or the appeal and character of old homes by the use of inappropriate solutions? This practical and essential guide to retrofitting for energy efficiency seeks to provide answers to this and other the questions homeowners of old houses are asking. Whether your house is medieval and timber-framed or a Georgian, Victorian or Edwardian terrace, it can be made more energy efficient and sustainable, and this practical and comprehensive handbook will show you how. Revised and updated throughout, and with a foreword by Kevin McLoud, Old House Eco Handbook includes chapters on the building envelope; roofs and ceilings; windows and doors; walls; floors; paints; energy, airandwater; plus a brand newchapter on retrofit materials. In association with The Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, this is a must have for owners of old houses looking to make their homes more energy efficient and sustainable. Chapters Include: 1. Old houses can be green 2. Old house to eco house 3. The building envelope 4. Retrofit materials 5. Roofs and ceilings 6. Windows and doors 7. Walls 8. Floors 9. Paints 10. Energy, air and water 11. Old house for the future

Practical Building Conservation

HOT LIME MORTAR Historically , many mortars were made by slaking hydraulic quicklime with sand . Since the 1960s , hydraulic quicklime has not been readily available and the tradition of hot lime mixing has declined dramatically .


Author: Alison Henry

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 0754645592

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 643

View: 727

Mortars, Renders and Plasters provides a broad perspective of contemporaryconservation theory and practice not otherwise found in one publication, describing the history,physical properties, and deterioration of these important materials. Methods of assessing condition and evaluating options for treatment and repair are discussed, together with a range of practical conservation techniques and maintenance strategies.


The traditional quicklime also produces as much as 50% non-hydrated residue during the tests. This suggests an origin for "lime inclusion" texture in historic mortars. Mortars produced using traditional hot mixing processes are ...


Author: Diane Throop

Publisher: ASTM International

ISBN: 9780803134508

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 287

View: 878

The 19 papers cover mortars, units, assemblies, and the potential of the industry in the near future. The topics include investigating the rheology and microstructure of hydrated lime and sand for mortars, predicting the freeze-thaw durability of bricks using an index based on residual expansion, a

Concrete Petrography

A common traditional technique to create good quality mortar is 'hot lime' mixing, where damp aggregate was mixed with quicklime, causing hydration of the calcium oxide during mixing of the mortar. There is anecdotal evidence that the ...


Author: Alan B. Poole

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781466583825

Category: Architecture

Page: 816

View: 371

This classic reference has established the value of petrography as a powerful method for the investigation of concrete as a material. It provides an authoritative and well-illustrated review of concrete composition and textures, including the causes of defects, deterioration, and failure that can be identified using a petrological microscope. This new edition is entirely revised and updated and also greatly extended to take account of new scientific developments and significant improvements in instrumentation and to reflect current laboratory working practices, as well as to reflect new understanding of the performance of concrete and related materials. Now in full color throughout, Concrete Petrography, Second Edition provides case study examples, with appropriate explanatory discussions and practical advice on selecting, handling and preparing specimens. It assists and guides the engineer, the trainee and the experienced petrographer in understanding the scientific evidence that is basic to petrographic analysis and so will lead to more accurate and timely diagnosis and treatment of problems in structural concrete. This book includes: Contributions in specialist areas by internationally recognized experts Explanation of computer techniques as an aid to petrography Full coverage of inspection, sampling, and specimen preparation New sections covering recent technological development of equipment Guidance on observation of cement and concrete mineralogy and microfabrics Discussion and illustrative examples of deterioration and failure mechanisms New work and guidance on the determination of water/cement ratio New color illustrations and micrographs throughout Thorough updating of standards, other authoritative publications, and references A fully revised, extended, and updated glossary of optical and other properties

Essential Natural Plasters

Lime plaster and the beautiful finishes that are possible with it requires patience and a lot of keen observation to find ... Coverage For coverage at 1⁄8”: Lime Recipe Hot Mixed Lime Mortars The revival of traditional hot-mixed lime ...


Author: Michael Henry

Publisher: New Society Publishers

ISBN: 9781771422581

Category: House & Home

Page: 224

View: 283

A veritable cookbook of natural plaster recipes and techniques for beautiful, durable finishes Natural plasters made of clay, lime, and other materials mixed with sand are beautiful building finishes. Fun to work with, low-impact, and allowing infinite creativity, they are high performance and provide proven, centuries-long durability. Yet until now there's been no resource that has pulled together the best North American plaster recipes and how-to into one place. Essential Natural Plasters covers it all: Sourcing and selecting materials, including site-soils Clay, lime, and gypsum plasters as well as fibers and amendments Interior and exterior use and specialty plasters such as tadelakt for bathrooms Preparing substrates, from straw bales and cob to lath and Sheetrock How to set up a safe, efficient worksite Mixing, testing, tinting, repairing, and applying plasters Coveted recipes from leading plasterers in Ontario, Vermont, New Mexico, France, and New Zealand. Richly illustrated and deeply researched, Essential Natural Plasters is the must-have resource for owner-builders and professionals alike.

Inclusive Design for Historic Buildings



Author: David Bonnett

Publisher: The Crowood Press

ISBN: 9781785009013

Category: Architecture


View: 897

Historic listed buildings continue to be enjoyed in the UK as places of work, education, entertainment, worship and more. However, in order to retain and enhance their value to society, they must function inclusively and provide easier access for disabled visitors. Inclusive Design for Historic Buildings explores how this challenging ambition can be reconciled with the long-standing objectives of building conservation. Experienced Access Consultant, David Bonnett, clearly sets out the qualifying elements for inclusivity and explores the architectural methods available, identifying five key typologies. Over twenty-five case studies are examined in depth, each illustrating a successful solution. Topics covered include the history of inclusive legislation; access auditing; working on-site and on-plan; consultation with disabled clients; creative problem-solving skills and, finally, social dynamics of the future.