How Landscapes Change

However , the long - term consequences of these changes have yet to be seen ( Science 1997 ; Chapin et al . 1998 ; Ayensu et al . 1999 ; Sala et al . 2000 ) . Further , as pointed out repeatedly by the authors in this volume , the rate ...

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Author: Gay A. Bradshaw

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540436979

Category: Science

Page: 362

View: 868

North and South America share similar human and ecological histories and, increasingly, economic and social linkages. As such, issues of ecosystem functions and disruptions form a common thread among these cultures. This volume synthesizes the perspectives of several disciplines, such as ecology, anthropology, economy, and conservation biology. The chief goal is to gain an understanding of how human and ecological processes interact to affect ecosystem functions and species in the Americas. Throughout the text the emphasis is placed on habitat fragmentation. At the same time, the book provides an overview of current theory, methods, and approaches used in the analysis of ecosystem disruptions and fragmentation.

Livelihood and Landscape Change in Africa Future Trajectories for Improved Well Being under a Changing Climate

development may range from a greater understanding of the social-ecological changes taking place and their consequences, to exploring ... While the need for transformations in how landscapes are used and managed for ecosystem services, ...

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Author: Sheona Shackleton

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 9783039214693

Category: Social Science

Page: 246

View: 594

This book is based on a Special Issue of the journal LAND that draws together a collection of 11 diverse articles at the nexus of climate change, landscapes, and livelihoods in rural Africa; all explore the links between livelihood and landscape change, including shifts in farming practices and natural resource use and management. The articles, which are all place-based case studies across nine African countries, cover three not necessarily mutually exclusive thematic areas, namely: smallholder farming livelihoods under new climate risk (five articles); long-term dynamics of livelihoods and landscape change and future trajectories (two articles); and natural resource management and governance under a changing climate, spanning forests, woodlands, and rangelands (four articles). The commonalities, key messages, and research gaps across the 11 articles are presented in a synthesis article. All the case studies pointed to the need for an integrated and in-depth understanding of the multiple drivers of landscape and livelihood change and how these interact with local histories, knowledge systems, cultures, complexities, and lived realities. Moreover, where there are interventions (such as new governance systems, REDD+ or climate smart agriculture), it is critical to interrogate what is required to ensure a fair and equitable distribution of emerging benefits.

Landscape Change and Resource Utilization in East Asia

Landscape. Change. and. Resource. Utilization. in. East. Asia. Covering the ancient period through to the 21st century, this book examines how landscapes have changed across East Asia over time. Featuring examples of a variety of ...

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Author: Ts'ui-jung Liu

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351182904

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 205

Covering the ancient period through to the 21st century, this book examines how landscapes have changed across East Asia over time. Featuring examples of a variety of landscapes, from the riverine and agricultural to the urban and aesthetic, this books thus presents a comprehensive review of East Asian environmental history. The eleven chapters, written by an international team of leading scholars, provide analysis of a wide range of spatial, temporal, and thematic considerations. Seeking to use the concept of landscape to evaluate the opportunities and constraints faced by East Asian communities, it also explores the relationship between landscape transformation and human agency. In so doing, it aims to survey the current methodology and scholarship in the field and demonstrate a new approach which encompasses socio-economic and cultural history, as well as GIS-based geographical studies. Providing an in-depth examination of landscape change across the sub-regions of China and Japan, this book will be useful to students and scholars of Asian History and Environmental Studies.

Forest Landscapes and Global Change

For the most part, it is still mostly landscape ecology in a forest context or a subset of landscape ecology that ... Dynamics in contiguous landscapes, although preserving structural stability at the landscape scale, cause changes in ...

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Author: João C. Azevedo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781493909537

Category: Science

Page: 262

View: 267

Climate change, urban sprawl, abandonment of agriculture, intensification of forestry and agriculture, changes in energy generation and use, expansion of infrastructure networks, habitat destruction and degradation, and other drivers of change occur at increasing rates. They affect patterns and processes in forest landscapes, and modify ecosystem services derived from those ecosystems. Consequently, rapidly changing landscapes present many new challenges to scientists and managers. While it is not uncommon to encounter the terms “global change” and “landscape” together in the ecological literature, a global analyses of drivers of change in forest landscapes, and their ecological consequences have not been addressed adequately. That is the goal of this volume: an exploration of the state of knowledge of global changes in forested landscapes with emphasis on causes and effects, and challenges faced by researchers and land managers. Initial chapters identify and describe major agents of landscape change: climate, fire, and human activities. The next series of chapters address implications of changes on ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation and carbon flux. A chapter that describes methodologies of detecting and monitoring landscape changes is presented followed by chapter that highlights the many challenges forest landscape managers face amidst of global change. Finally, we present a summary and a synthesis of the main points presented in the book. Each chapter will contain the individual research experiences of chapter authors, augmented by review and synthesis of global scientific literature on relevant topics, as well as critical input from multiple peer reviewers.

Drivers of Landscape Change in the Northwest Boreal Region

For example, as a driver of landscape change, communication could involve the sharing of information among scientists and resource managers (Fig. 7.5.1). Scientists study the interactions and feedbacks between physical, biological, ...

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Author: Valerie Barber

Publisher: University of Alaska Press

ISBN: 9781602233973

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 371

The northwest boreal region (NWB) of North America is a land of extremes. Extending more than 1.3 million square kilometers (330 million acres), it encompasses the entire spectrum between inundated wetlands below sea level to the tallest peak in North America. Permafrost gradients span from nearly continuous to absent. Boreal ecosystems are inherently dynamic and continually change over decades to millennia. The braided rivers that shape the valleys and wetlands continually change course, creating and removing vast wetlands and peatlands. Glacial melt, erosion, fires, permafrost dynamics, and wind-blown loess are among the shaping forces of the landscape. As a result, species interactions and ecosystem processes are shifting across time. The NWB is a data-poor region, and the intention of the NWB Landscape Conservation Cooperative is to determine what data are not available and what data are available. For instance, historical baseline data describing the economic and social relationships in association with the ecological condition of the NWB landscape are often lacking. Likewise, the size and remoteness of this region make it challenging to measure basic biological information, such as species population sizes or trends. The paucity of weather and climate monitoring stations also compound the ability to model future climate trends and impacts, which is part of the nature of working in the north. The purpose of this volume is to create a resource for regional land and resource managers and researchers by synthesizing the latest research on the historical and current status of landscape-scale drivers (including anthropogenic activities) and ecosystem processes, future projected changes of each, and the effects of changes on important resources. Generally, each chapter is coauthored by researchers and land and natural resource managers from the United States and Canada.

Agent Based Modelling and Landscape Change

Landscapes. C. Michael Barton, Isaac Ullah and Arjun Heimsath Abstract: We use the hybrid modeling laboratory of the ... Natural (e.g., climatically induced) land-cover change produces a distinctly different signature of landscape ...

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Author: James D. A. Millington

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 9783038422808

Category: Science

Page: 326

View: 509

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Agent-Based Modelling and Landscape Change" that was published in Land

The Long Term Perspective of Human Impact on Landscape for Environmental Change and Sustainability

land cover type essentially doubled the index, so the LCI included a factor of one-half to reflect the actual level of change. LCI was calculated with LCI t = 1 2 ×Cn i=1 |CA i | (2) where LCIt represents the landscape change index in ...

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Author: Anna Maria Mercuri

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 9783039217960

Category: Science

Page: 258

View: 392

The research studies included in this Special Issue highlight the fundamental contribution of the knowledge of environmental history to conscious and efficient environment conservation and management. The long-term perspective of the dynamics that govern the human–climate ecosystem is becoming one of the main focuses of interest in biological and earth system sciences. Multidisciplinary bio-geo-archaeo investigations into the underlying processes of human impact on the landscape are crucial to envisage possible future scenarios of biosphere responses to global warming and biodiversity losses. This Special Issue seeks to engage an interdisciplinary dialog on the dynamic interactions between nature and society, focusing on long-term environmental data as an essential tool for better-informed landscape management decisions to achieve an equilibrium between conservation and sustainable resource exploitation.

Demographic Change in Australia s Rural Landscapes

Rural landscapes throughout the developed world have been undergoing significant change over the past 50 years, referred to in the rural studies literature as rural restructuring (Nelson 2002, Woods 2005, see Chapter 1, this volume), ...

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Author: Gary W. Luck

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 904819654X

Category: Science

Page: 388

View: 219

The distribution and re-distribution of people across the landscape has signi cant implications for ecological, economic and social dynamics. Movement of people to urban centres (mostly from rural landscapes, especially in the developing world) is a major global phenomenon. This can result in the de-population of rural landscapes. Conversely, population growth and a changing demographic pro le have been id- ti ed for particular rural landscapes with notable examples from North America, Europe and Australia. Yet we know little of the factors that drive demographic changes in rural landscapes and even less about the implications of these changes. This book examines broad and local-scale patterns of demographic change in rural landscapes, identi es some of the drivers of these changes using Australian case studies or comparisons between Australian and international contexts, and outlines the implications of changes for society and the environment. This book makes a valuable contribution to the literature because it adopts an integrated and interdisciplinary approach by explicitly linking demographic change with environmental, land-use, social and economic factors. This integrated approach was achieved by encouraging interaction among authors writing on similar topics to ensure coherency and complementarity among chapters, and cross-pollination of ideas and perspectives. Chapters are presented as interactive and re ective d- cussions that address the ndings of other contributors; yet, each chapter contains enough background to stand alone as a unique contribution.

Reconstruction and Measurement of Landscape Change

A Study of Six Parishes in the St Albans Area Jonathan Hunn. Recen and A study of St Albans area Jonathan BAR British Series 236 Reconstruction and Measurement of Landscape Change A study of six.

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Author: Jonathan Hunn

Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Limited

ISBN: STANFORD:36105020349614

Category: Social Science

Page: 345

View: 841

The initial aim of the research from which this book arose was to place the Romano-British villa at Gorhambury near St Albans, Hertfordshire, within the context of the resources which it might have exploited and the economic organisation for which it was a focus. What resulted was a much wider history and reconstruction of the Gorhambury landscape itself. This `Study of six parishes in the St Albans area' presents an analysis and measurement of the changing landscape from the pre-medieval and medieval periods to the early modern, examining such themes as settlement, field systems, land use, and administration.

New Studies on Former and Recent Landscape Changes in Africa

This year's edition presents nine interdisciplinary scientific papers and reviews on former and recent landscape evolution and on past environments (e.g., climate change, vegetation dynamics and growing impact of humans on ecosystems).

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Author: Jörgen Runge

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781315815053

Category: Nature

Page: 238

View: 928

Volume 32 (2013) of the internationally recognized and acclaimed yearbook seriesPalaeoecology of Africa publishes 9 new interdisciplinary scientific papers on former and recent landscape evolution and on past environments of the African continent (e.g. climate change, vegetation dynamics and growing impact of humans on ecosystems). These papers