Is Science Racist

Jonathan Marks. Debating Race series David Theo Goldberg, Are we all
postracial yet? Ghassan Hage, Is racism an environmental threat? Jonathan
Marks, Is science racist? Is science racist? JONATHAN MARKS polity.


Author: Jonathan Marks

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780745689210

Category: Social Science

Page: 140

View: 111

Every arena of science has its own flash-point issues—chemistry and poison gas, physics and the atom bomb—and genetics has had a troubled history with race. As Jonathan Marks reveals, this dangerous relationship rumbles on to this day, still leaving plenty of leeway for a belief in the basic natural inequality of races. The eugenic science of the early twentieth century and the commodified genomic science of today are unified by the mistaken belief that human races are naturalistic categories. Yet their boundaries are founded neither in biology nor in genetics and, not being a formal scientific concept, race is largely not accessible to the scientist. As Marks argues, race can only be grasped through the humanities: historically, experientially, politically. This wise, witty essay explores the persistence and legacy of scientific racism, which misappropriates the authority of science and undermines it by converting it into a social weapon.

The Retreat of Scientific Racism

This fascinating study documents the refutation of scientific foundations for racism in Britain and the United States between the two World Wars.


Author: Elazar Barkan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521458757

Category: History

Page: 396

View: 426

This fascinating study documents the refutation of scientific foundations for racism in Britain and the United States between the two World Wars.

Race Racism and Science

Heavily illustrated and enlivened with sidebar biographies, this text is ideal for classroom use.


Author: John P. Jackson

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 0813537363

Category: Science

Page: 401

View: 911

Since the eighteenth century when natural historians created the idea of distinct racial categories, scientific findings on race have been a double-edged sword. For some antiracists, science holds the promise of one day providing indisputable evidence to help eradicate racism. On the other hand, science has been enlisted to promote racist beliefs ranging from a justification of slavery in the eighteenth century to the infamous twentieth-century book, The Bell Curve, whose authors argued that racial differences in intelligence resulted in lower test scores for African Americans. This well-organized, readable textbook takes the reader through a chronological account of how and why racial categories were created and how the study of “race” evolved in multiple academic disciplines, including genetics, psychology, sociology, and anthropology. In a bibliographic essay at the conclusion of each of the book's seven sections, the authors recommend primary texts that will further the reader's understanding of each topic. Heavily illustrated and enlivened with sidebar biographies, this text is ideal for classroom use.

Scientific Racism in Modern South Africa

Special attention is given to the rise of the eugenics movement which was
especially responsible for the explicit expression of racist conceptions . By
translating the insights of evolutionary biology into a popular idiom with a
recognisable social ...


Author: Saul Dubow

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 052147907X

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 481

A study of the history of intellectual and scientific racism in modern South Africa.

Racist America

72 Merlin Chowkwanyun, “Race Is Not Biology: How Unthinking Racial
Essentialism Finds Its Way into Scientific Research,” The Atlantic, May 23, 2013, (
accessed June ...


Author: Joe R. Feagin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351388597

Category: Social Science

Page: 418

View: 817

This fourth edition of Racist America is significantly revised and updated, with an eye toward racism issues arising regularly in our contemporary era. This edition incorporates many recent research studies and reports on U.S. racial issues that update and enhance the last edition’s chapters. It expands the discussion and data on social science concepts such as intersectionality and gendered racism, as well as the concepts of the white racial frame, systemic racism, and the elite-white-male dominance system from research studies by Joe Feagin and his colleagues. The authors have further polished the book and added more examples, anecdotes, and narratives about contemporary racism to make it yet more readable for undergraduates. Student objectives, summaries, key terms, and study questions are available under the e-Resources tab at

Science and Social Inequality

Science. IsScience Racist? It has been tempting to ask “Is science racist?” when
noticing the complicity of modern ... the charge of racism has been understood as
imputing intentional bias or prejudice to biologists and biomedical scientists in ...


Author: Sandra Harding

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252073045

Category: Science

Page: 205

View: 680

Rethinking the ways modern science encodes destructive political philosophies

Portrait of a Scientific Racist

In Portrait of a Scientific Racist James G. Hollandsworth, Jr., reveals how the conjectures of one of the country's most prominent racial theorists, Alfred Holt Stone, helped justify a repressive racial order that relegated African ...


Author: James G. Hollandsworth

Publisher: LSU Press

ISBN: 080713483X

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 344

View: 483

In the years after Reconstruction, racial tension soared, as many white southerners worried about how to deal with the millions of free African Americans among them -- an issue they termed the "negro problem." In an attempt to maintain the status quo, white supremacists resurrected old proslavery arguments and sought new justification in scientific theories purporting to "prove" people of African descent inherently inferior to whites. In Portrait of a Scientific Racist James G. Hollandsworth, Jr., reveals how the conjectures of one of the country's most prominent racial theorists, Alfred Holt Stone, helped justify a repressive racial order that relegated African Americans to the margins of southern society in the early 1900s. In this revealing biography, Hollandsworth examines the thoughts and motives of this renowned man, focusing primarily on Stone's most intensive period of theorizing, from 1900 to 1910. A committed and vocal white supremacist, Stone believed black southern workers were inherently lazy, a trait he attributed to their African genes and heritage. He asserted that slavery helped improve the black race but that opportunities still existed during Reconstruction to mold the freedmen into efficient workers. Stone's central -- yet unspoken -- goal was to devise a way to maintain an obedient, productive labor force willing to work for low wages. Writing from both Washington, D.C., and his cotton plantation in the Mississippi Delta, Stone published numerous essays and collected more than 3000 articles and pamphlets on the "American Race Problem" -- including those written by bitter racists and enthusiastic "race boosters." Though Stone lacked the credentials typically associated with scholarly experts of the time, he became an authority on the subject of black Americans, in part because of his close friendship with fellow scientific racist and statistician Walter F. Willcox. An early member of the American Economic Association and other academic groups, Stone went on to serve as head scholar of a division for race studies within the Carnegie Foundation. Interestingly, Stone recruited W. E. B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington to collaborate with him on a major study for the Foundation, continuing his tendency to incorporate all perspectives into his study of race. Hollandsworth uses Stone's extensive correspondence with Willcox, Du Bois, and Washington, as well as his personal writings -- both published and unpublished -- to reveal the secrets of this misguided, yet fascinating, figure.


The anatomist Robert Knox played a key role in spreading scientific racism (and
antisemitism) in the United Kingdom through his book, The ... (National Library of
Medicine) tematically interpreted all evidence in light of their racial prejudices.


Author: Richard S. Levy

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 9781851094394

Category: History

Page: 828

View: 486

Written by top scholars in an accessible manner, this unique encyclopedia offers worldwide coverage of the origins, forms, practitioners, and effects of antisemitism, leading to the Holocaust and surviving to the present day. * 650 A-Z entries by over 200 scholars from 21 countries * Illustrations such as caricatures, political cartoons, maps, and pictures of famous antisemites and historical episodes * Citations of recent literature that follow each entry * Detailed index listing people, places, concepts, and events that enables users to find information about subjects not treated in dedicated articles * Direction at the end of each entry to other articles with special relevance to the topic


Group Definition and the Idea of " Race " in Modern China ( 1793 - 1949 ) Frank
Dikotter Western scientific racism and pseudo - scientific studies of race
developed in the context of Western imperialism at the end of the nineteenth
century .


Author: Thomas Reilly

Publisher: M.E. Sharpe

ISBN: 0765610590

Category: Social Science

Page: 400

View: 329

Racism has existed throughout the world for centuries and has been at the root of innumerable conflicts and human tragedies, including war, genocide, slavery, bigotry, and discrimination. Defined broadly, racism has had many forms and effects, from caste prejudice in India and mass extermination in Tasmania to slavery in the Americas and the Holocaust in Europe. Put simply, racism has been one of the overriding forces in world history for more than a millennium. This book provides a global perspective of racism in its myriad forms. Consisting of twelve parts and fifty-one articles, it focuses on racism worldwide over the past thousand years. It includes three types of articles: original documents, scholarly essays, and journalistic accounts.

From Slurs to Science Racism to Revisionism White Nationalist Rhetors and Legitimation in the Stormfront Community

While on the surface mainstream discussions about race appear to encompass the values and ideologies associated with egalitarianism, subtle and at times not so subtle discussions continue to disparage groups and individuals who have been ...


Author: Claire Davies Rhodes


ISBN: OCLC:966603414



View: 394

While on the surface mainstream discussions about race appear to encompass the values and ideologies associated with egalitarianism, subtle and at times not so subtle discussions continue to disparage groups and individuals who have been historically associated with the minority. The growing existence of hate groups illustrates that arguments for these extreme ideologies are not only present but for some individuals are gaining in acceptance. For this reason, I perform a critical discourse analysis of the language of one of the most popular and prolific White Nationalist groups on the Internet, Stormfront. In particular, I examine how scientific and revisionist discourse is used throughout Stormfront to create a seemingly rational and legitimate justification for White Nationalist ideology. Focusing on scientific and historical discourses, this analysis identifies the similar argument types, orders of discourse, and styles between mainstream and White Nationalist discourse to show how seamlessly Stormfront discourse draws off of mainstream discourse. Designed to divert the audience from the stigma associated with White Nationalism, Stormfront users have intentionally adopted a mainstream script that follows current social norms. This analysis finds that Stormfront members use current scientific research to advance the White Nationalist ideology through the incorporation of a socially acceptable and mainstream discourse that is granted high status. Similarly, Stormfront members recontextualize authoritative historical discourses and mainstream mediated discourse to recast White Nationalists as the victims of inequality under a guise of legitimacy. Furthermore, both the science and revisionist threads on Stormfront use similar techniques (hyperlinking, source referral, etc.) and styles (assertions, legitimizing language, modality, etc.) to advance these arguments. Additionally, both threads incorporate external sources to their discourse, and this interdiscursivity gradually begins to chip away at the boundaries between extremist/hate/racist speech and mainstream discourse. These similar discourses are suggestive of a transition from the “extreme” to a more subtle, indirect racism that may have a more persuasive effect when presented under the guise of the socially acceptable.

Racial Science in Hitler s New Europe 1938 1945

Written by rising scholars who are new to English-language audiences, this work examines the scientific foundations that central, eastern, northern, and southern European countries laid for ethnic discrimination, the attempted annihilation ...


Author: Rory Yeomans

Publisher: U of Nebraska Press

ISBN: 9780803246058

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 968

In Racial Science in Hitler’s New Europe, 1938–1945, international scholars examine the theories of race that informed the legal, political, and social policies aimed against ethnic minorities in Nazi-dominated Europe. The essays explicate how racial science, preexisting racist sentiments, and pseudoscientific theories of race that were preeminent in interwar Europe ultimately facilitated Nazi racial designs for a “New Europe.” The volume examines racial theories in a number of European nation-states in order to understand racial thinking at large, the origins of the Holocaust, and the history of ethnic discrimination in each of those countries. The essays, by uncovering neglected layers of complexity, diversity, and nuance, demonstrate how local discourse on race paralleled Nazi racial theory but had unique nationalist intellectual traditions of racial thought. Written by rising scholars who are new to English-language audiences, this work examines the scientific foundations that central, eastern, northern, and southern European countries laid for ethnic discrimination, the attempted annihilation of Jews, and the elimination of other so-called inferior peoples.


We can relate all these developments (and more) to the growth and elaboration
of scientific racist attempts to use biological characteristics to scout for racial
hierarchies in social life, levels of civilization, even language. Yet the range and ...


Author: Henry B and Anne M Cabot Professor of English Literature and Professor of African and African American Studies Werner Sollors

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780195128574

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 546

View: 385

Interracialism, or marriage between members of different races, has formed, torn apart, defined and divided our nation since its earliest history. This collection explores the primary texts of interracialism as a means of addressing core issues in our racial identity. Ranging from Hannah Arendt to George Schuyler and from Pace v. Alabama to Loving v. Virginia, it provides extraordinary resources for faculty and students in English, American and Ethnic Studies as well as for general readers interested in race relations. By bringing together a selection of historically significant documents and of the best essays and scholarship on the subject of "miscegenation," Interracialism demonstrates that notions of race can be fruitfully approached from the vantage point of the denial of interracialism that typically informs racial ideologies.

Racism Governance and Public Policy

INTRODUCTION This chapter presents a new 'call to arms' to re-shape, renew
and re-focus the anti-racist political project ... The reduction of racism to scientific
racism neglected the way in which science is itself embedded in a specific culture
, ...


Author: Katy Sian

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135083670

Category: Social Science

Page: 156

View: 324

This book presents a new framing of policy debates on the question of racism through a discursive critique of contemporary issues and contexts, drawing on a program of new European research carried out between 2010 and 2013, with a central focus on the UK. This includes analysis of the discursive construction of Muslims in three contexts: the workplace, education and the media. Informed by a fundamental critique of both the "post-racial" and the limitations of human rights strategies, it identifies the ongoing significance of contemporary raciality in governance strategies and develops a new radical agenda for addressing these processes, advocating strategies of "racism reduction."

Race Crime and Resistance

We opened Chapter 1 by suggesting that scientific racism has become central to
the fields of power between the state and ... new in the suggestion that dubious
ideas about race and racial difference can be shored up by reference to science.


Author: Tina G Patel

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9781446210178

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

View: 757

In a post-Macpherson, post-9/11 world, criminal justice agencies are adapting their responses to criminal behaviour across diverse ethnic groups. Race, Crime and Resistance draws on contemporary theory and a range of case studies to consider racial inequalities within the criminal justice system and related organisations. Exploring the mechanisms of discrimination and exclusion, the book goes beyond superficial assumptions to examine the ensuing processes of mobilisation and resistance across disadvantaged groups. Empirically grounded and theoretically informed, the book critically unpicks the persisting concepts of race and ethnicity in the perceptions and representations of crime. Articulate and sensitive, the book clarifies complex ideas through the use of chapter summaries, case studies, further reading and study questions. It is essential reading for students and scholars of criminology, race and ethnicity, and sociology.

Colonialism and the Emergence of Science Fiction

As Joseph Graves demonstrates repeatedly and persuasively, the fundamental
error of scientific racism is that of mistaking a ... Thus the crux of the racist
ideological fantasy worked out in Moreau's project is Moreau's identification of his


Author: John Rieder

Publisher: Wesleyan University Press

ISBN: 9780819573803

Category: Fiction

Page: 200

View: 656

This is the first full-length study of emerging Anglo-American science fiction’s relation to the history, discourses, and ideologies of colonialism and imperialism. Nearly all scholars and critics of early science fiction acknowledge that colonialism is an important and relevant part of its historical context, and recent scholarship has emphasized imperialism’s impact on late Victorian Gothic and adventure fiction and on Anglo-American popular and literary culture in general. John Rieder argues that colonial history and ideology are crucial components of science fiction’s displaced references to history and its engagement in ideological production. He proposes that the profound ambivalence that pervades colonial accounts of the exotic “other” establishes the basic texture of much science fiction, in particular its vacillation between fantasies of discovery and visions of disaster. Combining original scholarship and theoretical sophistication with a clearly written presentation suitable for students as well as professional scholars, this study offers new and innovative readings of both acknowledged classics and rediscovered gems. Includes discussion of works by Edwin A. Abbott, Edward Bellamy, Edgar Rice Burroughs, John W. Campbell, George Tomkyns Chesney, Arthur Conan Doyle, H. Rider Haggard, Edmond Hamilton, W. H. Hudson, Richard Jefferies, Henry Kuttner, Alun Llewellyn, Jack London, A. Merritt, Catherine L. Moore, William Morris, Garrett P. Serviss, Mary Shelley, Olaf Stapledon, and H. G. Wells.

The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology

... 564 master narratives of race, 568-569 Morton's “scientificracism work, 565
personality development in racialized societies, 569-570 pre-Industrial “zones of
racial juxtaposition,” 559 psychological consequences, 560 from “race science”
to ...


Author: Jaan Valsiner

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199366224

Category: Psychology

Page: 1136

View: 253

The goal of cultural psychology is to explain the ways in which human cultural constructions -- for example, rituals, stereotypes, and meanings -- organize and direct human acting, feeling, and thinking in different social contexts. A rapidly growing, international field of scholarship, cultural psychology is ready for an interdisciplinary, primary resource. Linking psychology, anthropology, sociology, archaeology, and history, The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology is the quintessential volume that unites the variable perspectives from these disciplines. Comprised of over fifty contributed chapters, this book provides a necessary, comprehensive overview of contemporary cultural psychology. Bridging psychological, sociological, and anthropological perspectives, one will find in this handbook: - A concise history of psychology that includes valuable resources for innovation in psychology in general and cultural psychology in particular - Interdisciplinary chapters including insights into cultural anthropology, cross-cultural psychology, culture and conceptions of the self, and semiotics and cultural connections - Close, conceptual links with contemporary biological sciences, especially developmental biology, and with other social sciences - A section detailing potential methodological innovations for cultural psychology By comparing cultures and the (often differing) human psychological functions occuring within them, The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology is the ideal resource for making sense of complex and varied human phenomena.

Racism A Very Short Introduction

By 'scientific racism' is meant the attempt to use the language and some of the
techniques of science in support of theories or contentions that particular groups
or populations are innately inferior to others in terms of intelligence, 'civilisation'
or ...


Author: Ali Rattansi

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191584992

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

View: 956

From subtle discrimination in everyday life and scandals in politics, to incidents like lynchings in the American South, cultural imperialism, and 'ethnic cleansing', racism exists in many different forms, in almost every facet of society. But what actually is race? How has racism come to be so firmly established? Why do so few people actually admit to being racist? How are race, ethnicity, and xenophobia related? Racism: A Very Short Introduction incorporates the latest research to demystify the subject of racism and explore its history, science, and culture. It sheds light not only on how racism has evolved since its earliest beginnings, but will also explore the numerous embodiments of racism, highlighting the paradox of its survival, despite the scientific discrediting of the notion of 'race' with the latest advances in genetics. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

An Ambulance of the Wrong Colour

Science ' was used in South Africa to justify policies of discrimination in the
construction of a racist and oppressive state . ' Science ' is vested with the
authority of truth ' . As Saul Dubow ( 1995 : 9 ) has noted in his book Scientific
Racism in ...


Author: Laurel Baldwin-Ragaven

Publisher: Juta and Company Ltd

ISBN: 1919713484

Category: Social Science

Page: 246

View: 139

A study on the ethical problems afflicting the health sector this work catalogues, through numerous cases, the misconduct of health professionals with regard to civilians, prisoners and military personnel; documents the misuse of scientific research, health professional and training institutions, and statutory councils for apartheid purposes; observes the failings of a profession trying to provide health care in the absence of a culture of human rights; and identifies ways in which human rights and ethical dilemmas recur in the current context of democratic transformation.

The Race Gallery

Marek Kohn examines the resurgent racialism in science in a timely expose. The ideas, which exploit anxieties about race and social breakdown and their defenders, are analysed in this book."


Author: Marek Kohn

Publisher: Random House (UK)

ISBN: UVA:X006015775

Category: Anthropology

Page: 322

View: 961

Marek Kohn examines the resurgent racialism in science in a timely expose. The ideas, which exploit anxieties about race and social breakdown and their defenders, are analysed in this book."

An American Health Dilemma Race medicine and health care in the United States 1900 2000

Following is a short chronological foray into the ever changing relationships
between race , science , medicine , and health ... This history - based form of
scientific racism * had profound and nefarious health and health care effects on
enslaved ...


Author: W. Michael Byrd

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 0415927374

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 854

View: 579

Explores the state of health care in relation to African Americans from the early days of the U.S. to the present, covering topics such as the insurance industry, social and economic factors, eugenics, and medical experiments.