Isotopic Landscapes in Bioarchaeology

This work takes a critical look at the current concept of isotopic landscapes ("isoscapes") in bioarchaeology and its application in future research.

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Author: Gisela Grupe

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783662483398

Category: Science

Page: 238

View: 506

This work takes a critical look at the current concept of isotopic landscapes ("isoscapes") in bioarchaeology and its application in future research. It specifically addresses the research potential of cremated finds, a somewhat neglected bioarchaeological substrate, resulting primarily from the inherent osteological challenges and complex mineralogy associated with it. In addition, for the first time data mining methods are applied. The chapters are the outcome of an international workshop sponsored by the German Science Foundation and the Centre of Advanced Studies at the Ludwig-Maximilian-University in Munich. Isotopic landscapes are indispensable tracers for the monitoring of the flow of matter through geo/ecological systems since they comprise existing temporally and spatially defined stable isotopic patterns found in geological and ecological samples. Analyses of stable isotopes of the elements nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, strontium, and lead are routinely utilized in bioarchaeology to reconstruct biodiversity, palaeodiet, palaeoecology, palaeoclimate, migration and trade. The interpretive power of stable isotopic ratios depends not only on firm, testable hypotheses, but most importantly on the cooperative networking of scientists from both natural and social sciences. Application of multi-isotopic tracers generates isotopic patterns with multiple dimensions, which accurately characterize a find, but can only be interpreted by use of modern data mining methods.

Across the Alps in Prehistory

At the heart of this book is the matter of how isotopic landscapes combined with data mining enriches insights on prehistoric migration and cultural transfer.

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Author: Gisela Grupe

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319415505

Category: Science

Page: 255

View: 464

At the heart of this book is the matter of how isotopic landscapes combined with data mining enriches insights on prehistoric migration and cultural transfer. Isotopic mapping is an indispensable tool for the assessment of mobility and trade in the past, but is limited by eco-geographic redundancies. An interdisciplinary research group focuses on the archaeological isotopic landscape of a reference region of outstanding importance, namely the transalpine migration route via the Brenner Pass which has been in use since the Mesolithic. Over the period of several cultural epochs, cremation was either the most common or exclusive burial custom practiced. For the first time, a systematic and large scale investigation of cremated remains was being conducted in the field of prehistoric migration research.87Sr/86Sr, 208Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, 206Pb/204Pb, 208Pb/207Pb, 206Pb/207Pb and – if applicable - also δ18O were measured in human and animal skeletal finds, an isotopic map was established, and innovative methods of data mining and similarity research have been applied to accomplish this novel approach to studying prehistoric migration and culture transfer. The book has interdisciplinary appeal and scholars working in bioarchaeology, physical anthropology and computer applications in life sciences will find it of particular interest.

Handbook of Landscape Archaeology

Over the past three decades, 'landscape' has become an umbrella term to describe many different strands of archaeology.

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Author: Bruno David

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781315427720

Category: Social Science

Page: 719

View: 395

Over the past three decades, “landscape” has become an umbrella term to describe many different strands of archaeology. From the processualist study of settlement patterns to the phenomenologist’s experience of the natural world, from human impact on past environments to the environment’s impact on human thought, action, and interaction, the term has been used. In this volume, for the first time, over 80 archaeologists from three continents attempt a comprehensive definition of the ideas and practices of landscape archaeology, covering the theoretical and the practical, the research and conservation, and encasing the term in a global framework. As a basic reference volume for landscape archaeology, this volume will be the benchmark for decades to come. All royalties on this Handbook are donated to the World Archaeological Congress.

Isoscapes

This volume provides a comprehensive overview of the theory, methods, and applications that are enabling new disciplinary and cross-disciplinary advances through the study of "isoscapes": isotopic landscapes.

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Author: Jason B. West

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 904813353X

Category: Science

Page: 487

View: 341

Stable isotope ratio variation in natural systems reflects the dynamics of Earth systems processes and imparts isotope labels to Earth materials. Carbon isotope ratios of atmospheric CO2 record exchange of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere; the incredible journeys of migrating monarchs is documented by hydrogen isotopes in their wings; and water carries an isotopic record of its source and history as it traverses the atmosphere and land surface. Through these and many other examples, improved understanding of spatio-temporal isotopic variation in Earth systems is leading to innovative new approaches to scientific problem-solving. This volume provides a comprehensive overview of the theory, methods, and applications that are enabling new disciplinary and cross-disciplinary advances through the study of "isoscapes": isotopic landscapes. "This impressive new volume shows scientists deciphering and using the natural isotope landscapes that subtly adorn our spaceship Earth.", Brian Fry, Coastal Ecology Institute, Louisiana State University, USA "An excellent timely must read and must-have reference book for anybody interested or engaged in applying stable isotope signatures to questions in e.g. Anthropology, Biogeochemistry, Ecology, or Forensic Science regarding chronological and spatial movement, changes, or distribution relating to animals, humans, plants, or water.", Wolfram Meier-Augenstein, Centre for Anatomy & Human Identification, University of Dundee, UK "Natural resources are being affected by global change, but exactly where, how, and at what pace? Isoscapes provide new and remarkably precise answers.", John Hayes, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA "This exciting volume is shaping a new landscape in environmental sciences that is utilizing the remarkable advances in isotope research to enhance and extend the capabilities of the field.", Dan Yakir, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel

Isotopic Investigations of Pastoralism in Prehistory

This volume will appeal to scholars in archaeology, anthropology, and ecology, as well as those with interests in animal management.

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Author: Alicia R. Ventresca Miller

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351389914

Category: Social Science

Page: 164

View: 309

Pastoralists were a vital economic and social force in ancient societies around the globe, transforming landscapes poorly suited for agriculture into spaces of vast productive potential while simultaneously connecting mobile and sedentary communities alike across considerable distances. Drawing from the rich archaeological records of Asia, Africa, and Europe, Isotopic Investigations of Pastoralism in Prehistory brings together the latest studies employing heavy and light stable isotopic analyses of humans and animals to investigate pastoralist diets, movement, and animal management strategies. The contributions presented in this volume highlight new methodological developments while simultaneously drawing attention to the diverse environmental factors that contribute to isotopic variation in human, plant, and animal tissues. Particular attention is paid to how pastoralist decisions regarding animal pasturing and mobility can be teased out of complex isotopic datasets, and also to the challenges in extracting information on the scales of human mobility in pastoralist landscapes. This volume will appeal to scholars in archaeology, anthropology, and ecology, as well as those with interests in animal management.

Native American Landscapes of St Catherines Island Georgia

Stable nitrogen isotope ratios of bone collagen reflect marine and terrestrial
components of prehistoric human diet . Science 220 ... and contact periods . In
C.S. Larsen ( editor ) , The archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale : 2.

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Author: David Hurst Thomas

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSC:32106019378063

Category:

Page: 489

View: 967

Isotopic Investigations of Pastoralism in Prehistory

This volume will appeal to scholars in archaeology, anthropology, and ecology, as well as those with interests in animal management.

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Author: Alicia R. Ventresca Miller

Publisher:

ISBN: 131514302X

Category: HISTORY

Page:

View: 606

"Pastoralists were a vital economic and social force in ancient societies around the globe, transforming landscapes poorly suited for agriculture into spaces of vast productive potential while simultaneously connecting mobile and sedentary communities alike across considerable distances. ?Drawing from the rich archaeological records of Asia, Africa, and Europe, Isotopic Investigations of Pastoralism in Prehistory brings together the latest studies employing heavy and light stable isotopic analyses of humans and animals to investigate pastoralist diets, movement, and animal management strategies. The contributions presented in this volume highlight new methodological developments while simultaneously drawing attention to the diverse environmental factors that contribute to isotopic variation in human, plant, and animal tissues. Particular attention is paid to how pastoralist decisions regarding animal pasturing and mobility can be teased out of complex isotopic datasets, and also to the challenges in extracting information on the scales of human mobility in pastoralist landscapes. ?This volume will appeal to scholars in archaeology, anthropology, and ecology, as well as those with interests in animal management. "--Provided by publisher.

Native American Landscapes of St Catherines Island Georgia The data

Stable nitrogen isotope ratios of bone collagen reflect marine and terrestrial
components of prehistoric human diet . Science 220 ... and contact periods . In
C.S. Larsen ( editor ) , The archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale : 2.

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Author: David Hurst Thomas

Publisher:

ISBN: IND:30000115504536

Category: Animal remains (Archaeology)

Page: 1136

View: 435

Archaeology in the Lowland American Tropics

"Collection of 11 papers about analytical methods and their recent applications.

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Author: James A. Zeidler

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521444861

Category: History

Page: 312

View: 468

"Collection of 11 papers about analytical methods and their recent applications. Methods include survey techniques, community organization, landscapes, environmental stress, paleoethnobotany, plant microfossils, zooarchaeology, human osteology, stable isotope analysis, pottery analysis, and historical evidence. Regional coverage includes Puerto Rico, Panama, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru"--Handbook of Latin American Studies, v. 57.

Integrating Zooarchaeology

People , Plants , and Landscapes : Studies in Paleoethnobotany . Tuscaloosa ...
The Development of Southeastern Archaeology . Tuscaloosa ... Stable isotope
analysis of archaeological faunal remains from southern Ontario . Journal of ...

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Author: International Council for Archaeozoology. Conference

Publisher: Oxbow Books Limited

ISBN: IND:30000109856355

Category: Science

Page: 152

View: 553

Zooarchaeological research has great potential to investigate areas of interest to other archaeologists, such as diet, trade, ritual, spatial usage, rubbish disposal, production, specialisation, land use, and more. Contributions to this volume cover North and South America, the Near East, Great Britain and Continental Europe, over a period from c.19,000 bp to ad 1778, and explore such themes as hunter/gatherers, early farming, Bronze Age and Iron Age societies, Classical civilisations, the medieval world, New World explorers and the American War of Independence.

Isotopes in the Landscape

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Author: Julie Hamilton

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:974505785

Category: Agriculture, Prehistoric

Page: 379

View: 929

Guide

... Professor ) Early hominin palaeoecology , African archaeology , stable isotope
ecology , chemistry and palaeodiet ... of Continuing and Professional Education )
Project management and excavation , landscape archaeology ; Yorkshire ...

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Author: American Anthropological Association

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105127766736

Category: Anthropology

Page:

View: 741

The Archaeology of Food and Warfare

The archaeologies of food and warfare have independently developed over the past several decades. This volume aims to provide concrete linkages between these research topics through the examination of case studies worldwide.

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Author: Amber M. VanDerwarker

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319185064

Category: Social Science

Page: 313

View: 934

The archaeologies of food and warfare have independently developed over the past several decades. This volume aims to provide concrete linkages between these research topics through the examination of case studies worldwide. Topics considered within the book include: the impacts of warfare on the daily food quest, warfare and nutritional health, ritual foodways and violence, the provisioning of warriors and armies, status-based changes in diet during times of war, logistical constraints on military campaigns, and violent competition over subsistence resources. The diversity of perspectives included in this volume may be a product of new ways of conceptualizing violence—not simply as an isolated component of a society, nor as an attribute of a particular societal type—but instead as a transformative process that is lived and irrevocably alters social, economic, and political organization and relationships. This book highlights this transformative process by presenting a cross-cultural perspective on the connection between war and food through the inclusion of case studies from several continents.

Coastal Landscapes of the Mesolithic

Coastal landscapes of the Mesolithic : diversities, challenges and perspectives on human-coast-relations between the Atlantic and the Baltic Sea / Almut Schülke -- The role of coastal exploitation in the Maglemose culture of southern ...

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Author: Almut Schülke

Publisher:

ISBN: 1138303607

Category: Coastal archaeology

Page: 432

View: 431

Coastal Landscapes of the Mesolithic: Human Engagement with the Coast from the Atlantic to the Baltic Sea explores the character and significance of coastal landscapes in the Mesolithic - on different scales and with various theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches. Mesolithic people were strongly connected to the sea, with coastal areas vital for subsistence and communication across the water. This anthology includes case studies from Scandinavia, western Europe and the Baltic area, presented by key international researchers. Topics addressed include large-scale analyses of the archaeological and geological development of coastal areas, the exploration of coastal environments with interdisciplinary methods, the discussion of the character of coastal settlements and of their possible networks, social and economic practices along the coast, as well as perceptions and cosmological aspects of coastal areas. Together, these topics and approaches contribute in an innovative way to the understanding of the complexity of topographically changing coastal areas as both border zones between land and sea and as connecting landscapes. Providing novel insights into the study of the Mesolithic as well as coastal areas and landscapes in general, the book is an important resource for researchers of the Mesolithic and coastal archaeology.

Early Hominid Habitat Preferences in East Africa

In order to generate information on the site-specific context of hominid foraging behavior, and understand early hominid land-use patterns and habitat preference, the synchronic variation of hominid activity preserved in archaeological ...

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Author: Nancy E. Sikes

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:35179636

Category: Paleopedology

Page: 792

View: 902

In order to generate information on the site-specific context of hominid foraging behavior, and understand early hominid land-use patterns and habitat preference, the synchronic variation of hominid activity preserved in archaeological sites is examined in a diversity of floral microhabitats across two Early Pleistocene landscapes. In collaboration with landscape archaeology projects at Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) and Olorgesailie (Kenya), the stable carbon isotopic composition of paleosol (buried soil) organic matter and pedogenic carbonate is used in this thesis to estimate the original proportion of tropical grasses (C$sb4$ plants) to woody vegetation (C$sb3$ plants) across the ancient land surfaces. Interpretation of physiognomic types of tropical plant communities is based on a modern East African stable carbon isotopic soil and plant analog data set developed as part of this research. Floral microhabitat reconstructions are supported and supplemented by the stable oxygen isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonates, plus paleoenvironmental evidence obtained by more traditional means. The stable carbon isotopic values obtained from a basal Bed II paleosol at Olduvai Gorge indicate the 1 km$sp2$ study area near the FLK and HWK localities in the eastern paleolake margin supported a relatively closed riparian forest to grassy woodland $sim$1.74 Myr. Limited analyses suggest a similar floral context for the $sim$1.77 Myr middle Bed I FLK Zinjanthropus site. At Olorgesailie, stable carbon isotopic values from a R$sim$R0.99 Myr upper Member 1 paleosol, excavated along $sim$3.5 km of outcrop, indicate the ancient land surface near the shore of a freshwater lake supported an open C$sb4$ grassland, with some wooded grassland. Variability in the distribution and density of excavated archaeological traces over a paleolandscape may be related to hominid activities and resource use, and thus habitat preference. Ecologically and behaviorally based models of archaeological site location, as well as the ecological relationships indicated by studies of modern plant and animal resource abundance and distribution in subSaharan Africa, are integrated into behavioral hypotheses of hominid foraging and land-use patterns in analogous Early Pleistocene habitats. The hypotheses are tested with the paleosol carbon isotopic evidence generated on the floral microhabitat context of the excavated Oldowan and Acheulean assemblages at Olduvai Gorge and Olorgesailie, respectively. Although variation in floral microhabitat context is limited, it is suggested that Early Pleistocene hominids in East Africa may have preferred relatively closed woodland habitats that would have offered food resources, shade, and predator and sleeping refuge.

Archaeology International

... ceramic analysis ; isotopic study of archaeological bone Andrew Bevan PhD
Research Fellow Aegean and eastern ... lithic analysis Peter Drewett PhD
Reader Landscape archaeology ; later prehistory of Britain ; ceramic - age
societies in ...

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Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015068958928

Category: Archaeology

Page:

View: 782

Archaeology of Food

This indispensable resource provides an illustrated introduction to and overview of the archaeological study of food and foodways today.

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Author: Karen Bescherer Metheny

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780759123663

Category: Social Science

Page: 702

View: 474

This indispensable resource provides an illustrated introduction to and overview of the archaeological study of food and foodways today.

Environmental Archaeology

Emphasising the importance of a highly scientific approach to the subject, the book combines geoarchaeological, bioarchaeological (archaeobotany and zooarchaeology) and geochronological information and examines how these various aspects of ...

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Author: Chris Turney

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134664511

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 944

Environmental Archaeology: Theoretical and Practical Approaches outlines and assesses the various methods used to reconstruct and explain the past interaction between people and their environment. Emphasising the importance of a highly scientific approach to the subject, the book combines geoarchaeological, bioarchaeological (archaeobotany and zooarchaeology) and geochronological information and examines how these various aspects of archaeology may be used to enhance our knowledge and understanding of past human environments. Drawing from both the practical experiences of the authors and cutting-edge research, Environmental Archaeology: Theoretical and Practical Approaches is a valuable contribution to the subject. It will be essential reading for students and professionals in archaeology, geography and anthropology.

Molluscs in Archaeology

The subject of _Molluscs in Archaeology_ has not been dealt with collectively for several decades. This new volume in Oxbow_s Studying Scientific Archaeology series addresses many aspects of mollusks in archaeology.

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Author: Michael J. Allen

Publisher: Oxbow Books

ISBN: 9781785706110

Category: Social Science

Page: 200

View: 461

The subject of ‘Molluscs in Archaeology’ has not been dealt with collectively for several decades. This new volume in Oxbow’s Studying Scientific Archaeology series addresses many aspects of mollusks in archaeology. It will give the reader an overview of the whole topic; methods of analysis and approaches to interpretation. It aims to be a broad based text book giving readers an insight of how to apply analysis to different present and past landscapes and how to interpret those landscapes. It includes Marine, Freshwater and land snails studies, and examines topics such as diet, economy, climate, environmental and land-use, isotopes and mollusks as artifacts. It aims to provide archaeologists and students with the first port of call giving them a) methods and principles, and b) the potential information mollusks can provide. It concentrates on analysis and interpretation most archaeologists and students can undertake and understand, and to 'review' the 'heavier' science in terms of potential, application and interpretational value.