It From Bit or Bit From It

The essays in this book look at the question of whether physics can be based on information, or – as John Wheeler phrased it – whether we can get “It from Bit”.

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Author: Anthony Aguirre

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319360752

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 984

The essays in this book look at the question of whether physics can be based on information, or – as John Wheeler phrased it – whether we can get “It from Bit”. They are based on the prize-winning essays submitted to the FQXi essay competition of the same name, which drew over 180 entries. The eighteen contributions address topics as diverse as quantum foundations, entropy conservation, nonlinear logic and countable spacetime. Together they provide stimulating reading for all physics aficionados interested in the possible role(s) of information in the laws of nature. The Foundational Questions Institute, FQXi, catalyzes, supports, and disseminates research on questions at the foundations of physics and cosmology, particularly new frontiers and innovative ideas integral to a deep understanding of reality, but unlikely to be supported by conventional funding sources.

It From Bit or Bit From It

Ovidiu Cristinel Stoica Fourth prize in the FQXi's 2013 Essay Contest 'It from Bit, or Bitfrom It?'. —To J.A. Wheeler, at 5 years after his death.

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Author: Anthony Aguirre

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319129464

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 811

The essays in this book look at the question of whether physics can be based on information, or – as John Wheeler phrased it – whether we can get “It from Bit”. They are based on the prize-winning essays submitted to the FQXi essay competition of the same name, which drew over 180 entries. The eighteen contributions address topics as diverse as quantum foundations, entropy conservation, nonlinear logic and countable spacetime. Together they provide stimulating reading for all physics aficionados interested in the possible role(s) of information in the laws of nature. The Foundational Questions Institute, FQXi, catalyzes, supports, and disseminates research on questions at the foundations of physics and cosmology, particularly new frontiers and innovative ideas integral to a deep understanding of reality, but unlikely to be supported by conventional funding sources.

Physics as Information Theory

The review is divided into the following parts: (a) The informational axiomatization of Quantum Theory; (b) How space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from the quantum computation; (c) What is the information-theoretical meaning of ...

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Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:940486867

Category:

Page:

View: 949

The experience from Quantum Information of the last twenty years has lead theorists to look at Quantum Theory and the whole of Physics from a different angle. A new information-theoretic paradigm is emerging, long time ago prophesied by John Archibald Wheeler with his popular coinage 'It from bit'. Theoretical groups are now addressing the problem of deriving Quantum Theory from informational principles, and similar lines are investigated in new approaches to Quantum Gravity. In my talk I will review some recent advances on these lines. The general idea synthesizing the new paradigm is that there is only Quantum Theory (without quantization rules): the whole Physics--including space-time and relativity--is emergent from quantum-information processing. And, since Quantum Theory itself is made with purely informational principles, the whole Physics must be reformulated in information-theoretical terms. The review is divided into the following parts: (a) The informational axiomatization of Quantum Theory; (b) How space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from the quantum computation; (c) What is the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and Planck constant, and how the quantum field emerges; (d) Observational consequences: mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I then conclude with some possible future research lines.

Fundamental Physics At The Vigier Centenary L heretique De La Physique Lives On

This is the case either when there is a one-bit yes-or-no result such as whether the electron's quantum spin state is “up” or “down” when it is measured, ...

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Author: Richard L Amoroso

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789811246470

Category: Science

Page: 476

View: 587

There has not been a scientific revolution for about 100 years. One seems imminent, as QED has recently been violated at the Sigma-6 level. Kuhn, in 'The Structure of Scientific Revolutions', used Wittgenstein's famous duck-rabbit optical illusion to demonstrate how bias in interpretation causes scientists to see the same information in radically different manners, which is likely to have delayed the pending paradigm shift. Jean-Pierre Vigier, continually labeled l'hérétique de la physique and l'eternel resistant in French media, remains a pillar of modern mathematical physics. 'Heretical' works of Vigier related to extended electromagnetic theory incorporating photon mass and a longitudinal B(3) EM field, gravity, quantum theory, large-scale additional dimensions, the Dirac polarized vacuum and many more related issues are deemed by his followers to be essential to the evolution of physics. The phrase 'Lives On' was chosen in the title of this volume to claim ignored portions of his work are relevant to implementing the Paradigm Shift to an Einsteinian Unified Field Theory. Specifically, chapters about the Dirac Hypertube, Tight-Bound States and Spacetime programming provide required insights into crossing the dimensional barrier and 'proving' parts of M-Theoretic dimensionality. As happens periodically in the history of science, we live in a climate where coloring outside-the-box can have severe myopic consequences such as difficulties in passing PhD exams, challenges in grant approval or problems in receiving tenure. Since there is no conflict with Gauge Theory, once realized, many chapters in this important volume will aid in facilitating progress in physics beyond the Standard Model.

From Strange Simplicity to Complex Familiarity

"it from Bit" or "Bit from It"? Some 10 years ago, at the 30th anniversary of our Winter Seminar at Klosters in the Swiss Alps, Iohn Archibald Wheeler ...

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Author: Manfred Eigen

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191633065

Category: Science

Page: 768

View: 871

This book presents a vivid argument for the almost lost idea of a unity of all natural sciences. It starts with the "strange" physics of matter, including particle physics, atomic physics and quantum mechanics, cosmology, relativity and their consequences (Chapter I), and it continues by describing the properties of material systems that are best understood by statistical and phase-space concepts (Chapter II). These lead to entropy and to the classical picture of quantitative information, initially devoid of value and meaning (Chapter III). Finally, "information space" and dynamics within it are introduced as a basis for semantics (Chapter IV), leading to an exploration of life and thought as new problems in physics (Chapter V). Dynamic equations - again of a strange (but very general) nature - bring about the complex familiarity of the world we live in. Surprising new results in the life sciences open our eyes to the richness of physical thought, and they show us what can and what cannot be explained by a Darwinian approach. The abstract physical approach is applicable to the origins of life, of meaningful information and even of our universe.

Developments in Quantum Physics

Indeed, the electrical IT pattern must be imprinted upon the giant BIT field. That's what I mean by IT FROM BIT + BIT FROM IT. Micro-quantum physics is only ...

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Author: Frank H. Columbus

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 1594540039

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 558

The forefront of contemporary advances in physics lies in the submicroscopic regime, whether it be in atomic, nuclear, condensed-matter, plasma, or particle physics, or in quantum optics, or even in the study of stellar structure. All are based upon quantum theory (i.e., quantum mechanics and quantum field theory) and relativity, which together form the theoretical foundations of modern physics. Many physical quantities whose classical counterparts vary continuously over a range of possible values are in quantum theory constrained to have discontinuous, or discrete, values. The intrinsically deterministic character of classical physics is replaced in quantum theory by intrinsic uncertainty. According to quantum theory, electromagnetic radiation does not always consist of continuous waves; instead, it must be viewed under some circumstances as a collection of particle-like photons, the energy and momentum of each being directly proportional to its frequency (or inversely proportional to its wavelength, the photons still possessing some wavelike characteristics).

Consciousness from a Broad Perspective

It could not be constructed out of yes–no logic, because logic is not a ... But what does this measuring have to do with the “it from bit” thesis?

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Author: Anders Hedman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319529752

Category: Philosophy

Page: 285

View: 238

This volume offers an introduction to consciousness research within philosophy, psychology and neuroscience, from a philosophical perspective and with an emphasis on the history of ideas and core concepts. The book begins by examining consciousness as a modern mystery. Thereafter, the book introduces philosophy of mind and the mind-body problem, and proceeds to explore psychological, philosophical and neuroscientific approaches to mind and consciousness. The book then presents a discussion of mysterianist views of consciousness in response to what can be perceived as insurmountable scientific challenges to the problem of consciousness. As a response to mysterianist views, the next chapters examine radical approaches to rethinking the problem of consciousness, including externalist approaches. The final two chapters present the author’s personal view of the problem of consciousness. Consciousness remains a mystery for contemporary science—a mystery raising many questions. Why does consciousness persist as a mystery? Are we humans not intelligent enough to solve the riddle of consciousness? If we can solve this mystery, what would it take? What research would we need to conduct? Moreover, the mystery of consciousness prompts the larger question of how well the cognitive sciences have actually advanced our understanding of ourselves as human beings. After all, consciousness is not just a minor part of our existence. Without consciousness, we would not be human beings at all. This book aims to increase the accessibility of major ideas in the field of consciousness research and to inspire readers to contribute to the ongoing discussion of the place of consciousness in nature.

Information

IT FROM BIT ? The first question paraphrases the famous religious and philosophical puzzle : ' Why is there something rather than nothing ?

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Author: Hans Christian Von Baeyer

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674013875

Category: Science

Page: 258

View: 965

In this primer for the information age, von Baeyer presents a clear description of what information is; how concepts of its measurement, meaning, and transmission evolved; and what its ever-expanding presence portends for the future.

Complexity Entropy And The Physics Of Information

It from bit symbolizes the idea that every item of the physical world has at bottom—at a very deep bottom, in most instances—an immaterial source and ...

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Author: Wojciech H. Zurek

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780429982514

Category: Science

Page: 548

View: 797

This book has emerged from a meeting held during the week of May 29 to June 2, 1989, at St. John’s College in Santa Fe under the auspices of the Santa Fe Institute. The (approximately 40) official participants as well as equally numerous “groupies” were enticed to Santa Fe by the above “manifesto.” The book—like the “Complexity, Entropy and the Physics of Information” meeting explores not only the connections between quantum and classical physics, information and its transfer, computation, and their significance for the formulation of physical theories, but it also considers the origins and evolution of the information-processing entities, their complexity, and the manner in which they analyze their perceptions to form models of the Universe. As a result, the contributions can be divided into distinct sections only with some difficulty. Indeed, I regard this degree of overlapping as a measure of the success of the meeting. It signifies consensus about the important questions and on the anticipated answers: they presumably lie somewhere in the “border territory,” where information, physics, complexity, quantum, and computation all meet.

Eternal Harmony

As the timely publication of It From Bit or Bit From It? (Aguirre, Foster, and Merali 2015) amply attests, the scholarly dialogue between those who favor ...

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Author: Dr. Ron R. Rickards

Publisher: WestBow Press

ISBN: 9781512734881

Category: Religion

Page: 656

View: 416

Has modern physics proven that the universe was created by absolutely nothing? Absolutely not! Have modern cosmology and Darwinian evolution eliminated the need for God? Absolutely not! Have the new atheists demonstrated the irrelevance of theology and philosophy in the pursuit of Truth? Not even close! The first of the four-volume Eternal Harmony series, The Unity of Truth in God demonstrates decisively the powerful convergence of God-made religion and genuine science as well as faith and reason in the unity of truth in the one, true, triune God of the Holy Bible. The Tower of Modern Scientism is concurrently demolished so that not one scientistic stone is left standing upon another. Can the truths of modern science and God-made religion be brought into Eternal Harmony? Most definitely! Are human life and the cosmos meaningful and purposeful? Yes! Can you personally inherit eternal life in the new heavens and the new earth and be with God Himself? Absolutely! Join physicist Dr. Ron R. Rickards on a sacred journey up the Mountain of Truth, which begins on common scientific and religious ground and ends with the most exalted truths of modern science and God-made religion coexisting peacefully in Eternal Harmony. By incorporating the lyric sheets to a dozen original songs, The Unity of Truth in God engages the reader as all human beings truly deserve to be engaged: in the fullness of our humanitythat is, in heart, soul, and mind. The soundtrack is available through Amazon, iTunes and other popular outlets.

Mind into Matter

Here we see that bits are the basis for all distinctions in computers. ... Z “It” from “bit” refers to how a thing, an it, arises from a single yes or no ...

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Author: Fred Alan Wolf

Publisher: Red Wheel/Weiser

ISBN: 1609255402

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 188

View: 218

Alchemists of old attempted to make sense of the universe--to discover the connection between mind and matter. Some of today's scientists, in particular quantum physicists, are doing the same. In this contribution to the study of consciousness, physicist Fred Alan Wolf reveals what he calls the "new alchemy"--a melding of the ideas of the old alchemists and the new scientists to reach a fuller understanding of mind and matter. An elegant book with short, stand-alone chapters, each framed by an alchemical symbol and its definition. Thought-provoking for scientists and lay people alike.

Comprehensive Reviews Parts I and II From Decoding to Programing the Universe

for the universe, with the bit. A meticulous examination of the content of the book reveals that the “bit” was not created; it was actually “there,” even ...

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Author: Arieh Ben-Naim

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 9781483486888

Category:

Page: 162

View: 790

This book is the first in a series of books Titled: Comprehensive Reviews. The purpose of this series of books is to critically review some recent popular-science books, which in the author's view contain misleading information. It is also the purpose of the author to train the reader how to read critically popular-science books.

Molecular Theory of the Living Cell

4.16 “It From Bit” and the Triadic Theory of Reality The following excerpt from “Geon, Black Holes & Quantum Foam: A Life inPhysics” by Wheeler (1998) ...

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Author: Sungchul Ji

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461421528

Category: Science

Page: 748

View: 227

The book presents the first comprehensive molecular theory of the living cell ever published since the cell doctrine was formulated in 1838-1839. It introduces into cell biology over thirty key concepts, principles and laws imported from physics, chemistry, computer science, linguistics, semiotics and philosophy. The author formulates physically, chemically and enzymologically realistic molecular mechanisms to account for basic living processes such as ligand-receptor interactions, enzymic catalysis, force-generating mechanisms in molecular motors, chromatin remodelling, and signal transduction. Possible solutions to basic and practical problems facing contemporary biology and biomedical sciences have been suggested, including pharmacotherapeutics and personalized medicine.

Incontinence of the Void

4.3 From Bit to It This intertwinement of Real, Symbolic, and Imaginary in the constitution of what we experience as reality confronts us with the old ...

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Author: Slavoj Žižek

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262036818

Category: Philosophy

Page: 328

View: 660

If the most interesting theoretical interventions emerge today from the interspaces between fields, then the foremost interspaceman is Slavoj Žižek. In Incontinence of the Void (the title is inspired by a sentence in Samuel Beckett's late masterpiece Ill Seen Ill Said), Žižek explores the empty spaces between philosophy, psychoanalysis, and the critique of political economy. He proceeds from the universal dimension of philosophy to the particular dimension of sexuality to the singular dimension of the critique of political economy. The passage from one dimension to another is immanent: the ontological void is accessible only through the impasses of sexuation and the ongoing prospect of the abolition of sexuality, which is itself opened up by the technoscientific progress of global capitalism, in turn leading to the critique of political economy. Responding to his colleague and fellow Short Circuits author Alenka Zupancic's What Is Sex?, Žižek examines the notion of an excessive element in ontology that gives body to radical negativity, which becomes the antagonism of sexual difference. From the economico-philosophical perspective, Žižek extrapolates from ontological excess to Marxian surplus value to Lacan's surplus enjoyment. In true Žižekian fashion, Incontinence of the Void focuses on eternal topics while detouring freely into contemporary issuesfrom the Internet of Things to Danish TV series.

Before the Big Bang

In the “it from bit” theory, the universe is the information; there is no computer. REGISTERING ISN'T BEING Some would argue that there is a danger of ...

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Author: Brian Clegg

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 1429987421

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 315

According to a recent survey, the most popular question about science from the general public was: what came before the Big Bang? We all know on some level what the Big Bang is, but we don't know how it became the accepted theory, or how we might know what came before. In Before the Big Bang, Brian Clegg (the critically acclaimed author of Upgrade Me and The God Effect) explores the history of this remarkable concept. From the earliest creation myths, through Hershel's realization that the Milky Way was one of many galaxies, to on-going debates about Black Holes, this is an incredible look at the origins of the universe and the many theories that led to the acceptance of the Big Bang. But in classic scientist fashion Clegg challenges the notion of the "Big Bang" itself, and raises the deep philosophical question of why we might want to rethink the origin of the universe. This is popular science at its best, exploratory, controversial, and utterly engrossing.

Nanobrain

Turing's culture to melt and rebuild is replaced by “be like it”—that is the new bit. Connecting the dots: “It from bit,” to continuous to geometric: Every ...

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Author: Anirban Bandyopadhyay

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780429527180

Category: Science

Page: 354

View: 647

Making an artificial brain is not a part of artificial intelligence. It will be a revolutionary journey of mankind exploring a science where one cannot write an equation, a material will vibrate like geometric shape, and then those shapes will change to make decisions. Geometry of silence plays like a musical instrument to mimic a human brain; our thoughts, imagination, everything would be a 3D shape playing as music; composing music would be the brain’s singular job. For a century, the Turing machine ruled human civilization; it was believed that irrespective of complexity all events add up linearly. This book is a thesis to explore the science of decision-making where events are 3D-geometric shapes, events grow within and above, never side by side. ​ The book documents inventions and discoveries in neuroscience, computer science, materials science, mathematics and chemistry that explore the possibility of brain or universe as a time crystal. The philosophy of Turing, the philosophy of membrane-based neuroscience and the philosophy of linear, sequential thought process are challenged here by considering that a nested time crystal encompasses the entire conscious universe. Instead of an algorithm, the pattern of maximum free will is generated mathematically and that very pattern is encoded in materials such that its natural vibration integrates random events exactly similar to the way nature does it in every remote corner of our universe. Find how an artificial brain avoids any necessity for algorithm or programming using the pattern of free will.

The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Information

... John Wheeler introduced his famous phrase “it from bit” (Wheeler 1990), ... every it, derives from bits” – that “every particle, every field of force, ...

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Author: Luciano Floridi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317633495

Category: Philosophy

Page: 446

View: 387

Information and communication technology occupies a central place in the modern world, with society becoming increasingly dependent on it every day. It is therefore unsurprising that it has become a growing subject area in contemporary philosophy, which relies heavily on informational concepts. The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Information is an outstanding reference source to the key topics and debates in this exciting subject and is the first collection of its kind. Comprising over thirty chapters by a team of international contributors the Handbook is divided into four parts: basic ideas quantitative and formal aspects natural and physical aspects human and semantic aspects. Within these sections central issues are examined, including probability, the logic of information, informational metaphysics, the philosophy of data and evidence, and the epistemic value of information. The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Information is essential reading for students and researchers in philosophy, computer science and communication studies.

Cosmic Jackpot

36 Why should "it from bit" imply "law without law"? ... In a computer, bits of information are stored in a variety of ways, such as in magnetized domains.

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Author: Paul Davies

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 0547415761

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 588

Cosmic Jackpot is Paul Davies’s eagerly awaited return to cosmology, the successor to his critically acclaimed bestseller The Mind of God. Here he tackles all the "big questions," including the biggest of them all: Why does the universe seem so well adapted for life? In his characteristically clear and elegant style, Davies shows how recent scientific discoveries point to a perplexing fact: many different aspects of the cosmos, from the properties of the humble carbon atom to the speed of light, seem tailor-made to produce life. A radical new theory says it’s because our universe is just one of an infinite number of universes, each one slightly different. Our universe is bio-friendly by accident -- we just happened to win the cosmic jackpot. While this "multiverse" theory is compelling, it has bizarre implications, such as the existence of infinite copies of each of us and Matrix-like simulated universes. And it still leaves a lot unexplained. Davies believes there’s a more satisfying solution to the problem of existence: the observations we make today could help shape the nature of reality in the remote past. If this is true, then life -- and, ultimately, consciousness -- aren’t just incidental byproducts of nature, but central players in the evolution of the universe. Whether he’s elucidating dark matter or dark energy, M-theory or the multiverse, Davies brings the leading edge of science into sharp focus, provoking us to think about the cosmos and our place within it in new and thrilling ways.

The Goldilocks Enigma

... about the world ultimately boils down to bits of information.35 For him, ... he called “it from bit”; the “it” is a physical object such as an electron, ...

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Author: Paul Davies

Publisher: HMH

ISBN: 9780547348469

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 974

An acclaimed physicist and cosmologist considers the multiverse and more: “Very readable indeed . . . This is Doctor Who, but for real.” —TheGuardian The Goldilocks Enigma is Paul Davies’s eagerly awaited return to cosmology, the successor to his critically acclaimed bestseller The Mind of God. Here he tackles all the “big questions,” including the biggest of them all: Why does the universe seem so well adapted for life? In his characteristically clear and elegant style, Davies shows how recent scientific discoveries point to a perplexing fact: many different aspects of the cosmos, from the properties of the humble carbon atom to the speed of light, seem tailor-made to produce life. A radical new theory says it’s because our universe is just one of an infinite number of universes, each one slightly different. Our universe is bio-friendly by accident—we just happened to win the cosmic jackpot. While this “multiverse” theory is compelling, it has bizarre implications, such as the existence of infinite copies of each of us and Matrix-like simulated universes. And it still leaves a lot unexplained. Davies believes there’s a more satisfying solution to the problem of existence: the observations we make today could help shape the nature of reality in the remote past. If this is true, then life—and, ultimately, consciousness—aren’t just incidental byproducts of nature, but central players in the evolution of the universe. Whether he’s elucidating dark matter or dark energy, M-theory or the multiverse, Davies brings the leading edge of science into sharp focus, provoking us to think about the cosmos and our place within it in new and thrilling ways.

The Matrix Explained

Why the Information-Bit is the Missing Link between Science and ... of two bits of data collected by our senses John Wheeler's it-from-bit concept Two bits ...

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Author: Maxime Drouin

Publisher: Gatekeeper Press

ISBN: 9781642373097

Category: Philosophy

Page: 246

View: 130

It’s amazing how dominant information is in the modern world. In fact, it’s so dominant that it begs the question, “What if information does not only define and shape our world—what if it is in fact reality”? The 1999 film The Matrix and its sequels were predicated on just this idea. Of late, the sultans of Silicon Valley have become obsessed with this idea, which is known as the simulation hypothesis. Elon Musk himself has remarked, “There’s a billion-to-one chance we’re living in base reality.” Perhaps information doesn’t just define and shape our reality. Perhaps it’s entangled in the fabric of reality through the mind of the observer. Consider the philosophical thought experiment: if a tree falls in the forest and no one is there to hear it, does it make a sound? It takes a mind to experience reality. In this book, I chronicle the journey that led me to discover the missing link between science and spirituality: the information-bit. Legendary theoretical physicist John Wheeler’s “it-from-bit” theory and my own Quantum Mind model are ultimately rooted in the same thing: data. Wheeler suggested that the reality of physics —the “it”—is based on patterns of information, or “bits.” I theorize that our actions in the real world unfold in sync with the underlying information-thought blueprints that exist in our mind. Buddha once said, “The mind is everything. What you think, you become.” This bi-directional dialogue across the mind–body connection may well occur at the Planck scale, where the transition between quantum physics—the bit—and classical physics—the it—operates. But where do the mind and body meet? Purpose, which emerges from knowing oneself, unifies the wisdom of the East with the pragmatism of the West. The energy derived from what has meaning to the self is the fuel that allows individuals to manifest in the physical reality (via the body) the bit arrangement contained in the micro realm of their mind. If its point of origin is love, this route leads to inner peace and harmony and draws a vector unifying the mind, heart, and body.