MUTUAL AID

2017 Reprint of 1919 Edition. "Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution" is a 1902 work by Russian anarchist philosopher Peter Kropotkin.

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Author: Peter Kropotkin

Publisher: Martino Fine Books

ISBN: 168422070X

Category: Nature

Page: 294

View: 486

2017 Reprint of 1919 Edition. "Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution" is a 1902 work by Russian anarchist philosopher Peter Kropotkin. Kropotkin explores the role of mutually-beneficial cooperation and reciprocity (or "mutual aid") in the animal kingdom and human societies both past and present. It is an argument against the competition-centered theories of so-called social Darwinism, as well as the romantic depictions of cooperation presented by writers such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who argued it was motivated by universal love rather than self-interest. "Mutual Aid" is considered a fundamental text in anarchist communism, presenting a scientific basis for communism alternative to the historical materialism of the Marxists. Many biologists also consider it an important catalyst in the scientific study of cooperation.

Mutual Aid

After examining the evidence of cooperation in nonhuman animals, pre-feudal societies, in medieval cities, and in modern times, he concludes that cooperation and mutual aid are the most important factors in the evolution of the species and ...

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Author: Kniaz Petr Alekseevich Kropotkin

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9781625584649

Category: Science

Page: 190

View: 558

Written partly in response to Social Darwinism and in particular to Thomas H. Huxley's nineteenth-century essay, "The Struggle for Existence," Kropotkin's book drew on his experiences in scientific expeditions in Siberia to illustrate the phenomenon of cooperation. After examining the evidence of cooperation in nonhuman animals, pre-feudal societies, in medieval cities, and in modern times, he concludes that cooperation and mutual aid are the most important factors in the evolution of the species and the ability to survive.

Mutual Aid a Factor in Evolution

This is an important book to read for those interested in leftist thought, whether socialism, communism, or anarchism. We are stronger together.

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Author: Peter Kropotkin

Publisher:

ISBN: 1549909851

Category:

Page: 209

View: 237

In this powerful and thorough debunking of Social Darwinism, the author explains how mutual cooperation within species ensures that those species survive and flourish, in animals as well as in humans. This is an important book to read for those interested in leftist thought, whether socialism, communism, or anarchism. We are stronger together.

Mutual Aid a Factor of Evolution

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Author: Petr Alekseevich Kropotkin (kni︠a︡zʹ)

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105036882673

Category: Common good

Page: 277

View: 582

Mutual Aid

Examining animals, indigenous societies, medieval cities, and the modern era, Kropotkin demonstrates the importance of cooperation to evolution and survival. This Dialectics edition includes Kropotkin's extensive notes.

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Author: Peter Kropotkin

Publisher: Dialectics

ISBN: 1940777879

Category:

Page: 200

View: 450

In Mutual Aid, Peter Kropotkin attacks the use of Darwinism as a social theory, arguing that cooperation is as important as competition. Examining animals, indigenous societies, medieval cities, and the modern era, Kropotkin demonstrates the importance of cooperation to evolution and survival. This Dialectics edition includes Kropotkin's extensive notes. Each note is placed as a footnote at the bottom of the page in which it appears. Peter Kropotkin (1842-1921) was born a Russian prince, but abandoned his title at the age of twelve. He escaped from his first imprisonment and lived the bulk of his life in exile. Though he was a skilled geographer, he is most known for being an important theorist of anarchism and anarchist communism.

Mutual Aid

Mutual Aid A Factor of Evolution By P. Kropotkin Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution is a book by Peter Kropotkin on the subject of mutual aid, written while he was living in exile in England.

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Author: P. Kropotkin

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 1497552737

Category: Science

Page: 212

View: 712

Mutual Aid A Factor of Evolution By P. Kropotkin Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution is a book by Peter Kropotkin on the subject of mutual aid, written while he was living in exile in England. It was first published by William Heinemann in London in October 1902. The individual chapters had originally been published in 1890–96 as a series of essays in the British monthly literary magazine, Nineteenth Century. Written partly in response to Social Darwinism and in particular to Thomas H. Huxley's Nineteenth Century essay, "The Struggle for Existence", Kropotkin's book drew on his experiences in scientific expeditions in Siberia to illustrate the phenomenon of cooperation. After examining the evidence of cooperation in nonhuman animals, in pre-feudal societies and medieval cities, and in modern times, he concluded that cooperation and mutual aid are the most important factors in the evolution of species and the ability to survive. Daniel P. Todes, in his account of Russian naturalism in the 19th century, concludes that Kropotkin's work "cannot be dismissed as the idiosyncratic product of an anarchist dabbling in biology" and that his views "were but one expression of a broad current in Russian evolutionary thought that pre-dated, indeed encouraged, his work on the subject and was by no means confined to leftist thinkers." Kropotkin pointed out the distinction between the direct struggle among individuals for limited resources (generally called competition) and the more metaphorical struggle between organisms and the environment (tending to be cooperative). He therefore did not deny the competitive form of struggle, but argued that the cooperative counterpart has been underemphasized: "There is an immense amount of warfare and extermination going on amidst various species; there is, at the same time, as much, or perhaps even more, of mutual support, mutual aid, and mutual defense...Sociability is as much a law of nature as mutual struggle." However, Kropotkin did consider cooperation as a feature of the most advanced organisms (e.g., ants among insects, mammals among vertebrates) leading to the development of the highest intelligence and bodily organization.

Mutual Aid A Factor of Evolution

Sociability and need of mutual aid and support are such inherent parts of human nature that at no time of history can we discover men living in small isolated families, fighting each other for the means of subsistence.

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Author: Peter Kropotkin

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9783748101000

Category: Philosophy

Page: 382

View: 719

Sociability and need of mutual aid and support are such inherent parts of human nature that at no time of history can we discover men living in small isolated families, fighting each other for the means of subsistence. On the contrary, modern research, as we saw it in the two preceding chapters, proves that since the very beginning of their prehistoric life men used to agglomerate into gentes, clans, or tribes, maintained by an idea of common descent and by worship of common ancestors. For thousands and thousands of years this organization has kept men together, even though there was no authority whatever to impose it. It has deeply impressed all subsequent development of mankind; and when the bonds of common descent had been loosened by migrations on a grand scale, while the development of the separated family within the clan itself had destroyed the old unity of the clan, a new form of union, territorial in its principle-the village community-was called into existence by the social genius of man. This institution, again, kept men together for a number of centuries, permitting them to further develop their social institutions and to pass through some of the darkest periods of history, without being dissolved into loose aggregations of families and individuals, to make a further step in their evolution, and to work out a number of secondary social institutions, several of which have survived down to the present time.

Mutual Aid

This Elibron Classics title is a reprint of the original edition published by William Heinemann in London, 1908.

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Author: Petr Alekseevich Kropotkin

Publisher:

ISBN: 0543701697

Category:

Page: 368

View: 523

This Elibron Classics title is a reprint of the original edition published by William Heinemann in London, 1908.

Mutual Aid A Factor of Evolution

This classic work is being republished now in a new edition complete with an excerpt from “Comrade Kropotkin” by Victor Robinson.

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Author: Peter Kropotkin

Publisher: Read Books Ltd

ISBN: 9781528790154

Category: Psychology

Page: 284

View: 685

“Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution” is a 1902 collection of essays by Russian naturalist and anarchist philosopher Peter Kropotkin. Originally published in “The Nineteenth Century” from 1890 to 1896, the essays examine mutually-beneficial cooperation and reciprocity in both animal and human societies. Contents include: “Mutual Aid Among Animals”, “Mutual Aid Among Animals (continued)”, “Mutual Aid Among Savages”, “Mutual Aid Among The Barbarians”, “Mutual Aid In The Mediaeval City”, “Mutual Aid In The Mediaeval City (continued)”, etc. Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin (1842–1921) was a Russian writer, activist, revolutionary, economist, scientist, sociologist, essayist, historian, researcher, political scientist, geographer, geographer, biologist, philosopher and advocate of anarcho-communism. He was a prolific writer, producing a large number of pamphlets and articles, the most notable being “The Conquest of Bread and Fields, Factories and Workshops” and “Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution”. This classic work is being republished now in a new edition complete with an excerpt from “Comrade Kropotkin” by Victor Robinson.

Mutual Aid

Written as a series of essays for a British literary journal, this intriguing work filters concepts of evolution through Kropotkin's appreciation for altruism and anarchy, positing cooperation not merely as a beneficial political concept ...

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Author: Peter Kropotkin

Publisher: Cosimo, Inc.

ISBN: 9781605206639

Category: Political Science

Page: 372

View: 548

Oscar Wilde deemed his life "perfect," and described him as a man with "a soul of that beautiful white Christ which seems coming out of Russia." He is PETER ALEXEYEVICH KROPOTKIN (1842-1921), communist advocate and "anarchist prince." Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, first published in 1902, is his best known book. Written as a series of essays for a British literary journal, this intriguing work filters concepts of evolution through Kropotkin's appreciation for altruism and anarchy, positing cooperation not merely as a beneficial political concept but as an approach that has been-and will continue to be-vital to the long-term survival of humanity. Kropotkin explores "mutual aid" among "animals," "savages," "barbarians," and in the medieval and modern world, and also discusses nesting associations, checks to overmultiplication, adaptations to avoid competition, the origin of the family, the origin of the guilds, and other related issues. Anyone interested in the science of evolution and its influence on the shape of human societies will find this a fascinated read.

Mutual Aid

Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution is a book by Peter Kropotkin on the subject of mutual aid, written while he was living in exile in England.

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Author: Peter Harry Kropotkin

Publisher: Readaclassic.com

ISBN: 1611043603

Category: Science

Page: 222

View: 789

Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution is a book by Peter Kropotkin on the subject of mutual aid, written while he was living in exile in England. It was first published by William Heinemann in London in October 1902. The individual chapters had originally been published in 1890-96 as a series of essays in the British monthly literary magazine, Nineteenth Century. Written partly in response to Social Darwinism and in particular to Thomas H. Huxley's Nineteenth Century essay, "The Struggle for Existence," Kropotkin's book drew on his experiences in scientific expeditions in Siberia to illustrate the phenomenon of cooperation. After examining the evidence of cooperation in nonhuman animals, "savages," "barbarians," in medieval cities, and in modern times, he concludes that cooperation and mutual aid are as important in the evolution of the species as competition and mutual strife, if not more so.

Mutual Aid

His message is clear: solidarity is strength! Every page of this new edition of Mutual Aid has been beautifully illustrated by one of anarchism's most celebrated current artists, N.O. Bonzo.

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Author: Peter Kropotkin

Publisher:

ISBN: 1629638749

Category:

Page: 240

View: 775

One hundred years after his death, Peter Kropotkin is still one of the most inspirational figures of the anarchist movement. His message is clear: solidarity is strength! Every page of this new edition of Mutual Aid has been beautifully illustrated by one of anarchism's most celebrated current artists, N.O. Bonzo. The reader will also enjoy original artwork by GATS and insightful commentary by David Graeber, Ruth Kinna, Andrej Grubacic, and Allan Antliff.

Mutual Aid

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Author: Prince A. P. A. Kropotkin

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:221537441

Category: Association and associations

Page:

View: 735

Mutual Aid

About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work.

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Author: P. Kropotkin

Publisher: Forgotten Books

ISBN: 1440051801

Category:

Page: 374

View: 895

Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution is a book written by Peter Kropotkin and originally published as a series of articles in a British literary magazine. Kropotkin was a well-known zoologist, evolutionary theorist, and communist, and his ideas often challenged those of Charles Darwin. Mutual Aid is Kropotkin's examination of mutual aid, a theory of social organization that championed cooperation and reciprocation between members of a species for the betterment of the group. Kropotkin's view challenged the beliefs of Social Darwinists, who believed competition between members of a species inherently promoted evolution and survival of the group. Kropotkin begins his book with an examination of mutual aid in the animal kingdom, where he includes examples of ants, bees, birds, large cats, wolves, and more. Kropotkin continues with a discussion of mutual aid in human societies, examining both ancient civilizations as well as modern humans. The book concludes with an appendix and detailed index. Kropotkin's work is a fascinating read and presents a theory every bit as worthy of consideration as Darwinism. The author does not deny the importance of competition in the advancement of a species, but rather argues that cooperation and mutual aid have been underappreciated aspects of man's proliferation on Earth. Kropotkin argues for the local production of food and the self-sufficiency of nations - principals that many Westerners of the twenty-first century advocate for as well. Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution presents an important and often under considered theory on the development of species. Whether you sympathize with his viewpoints or not, Kropotkin was certainly a brilliant man, and one that deserves to be widely read. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

Mutual Aid

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Author: P. A. Kropotkin

Publisher: Black Rose Books Ltd.

ISBN: 1551644703

Category: Cooperation

Page: 348

View: 657

Mutual Aid

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Author: Petr Alekseevǐc Kropotkin

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:800477967

Category:

Page: 240

View: 454

The Mutual Aid A Factor in Evolution

The essays explore the role of mutually-beneficial cooperation and reciprocity (or ""mutual aid"") in the animal kingdom and human societies both past and present.

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Author: Peter Kropotkin

Publisher:

ISBN: 9390896665

Category:

Page: 242

View: 457

Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution is a 1902 collection of anthropological essays by Russian naturalist and anarchist philosopher Peter Kropotkin. The essays explore the role of mutually-beneficial cooperation and reciprocity (or ""mutual aid"") in the animal kingdom and human societies both past and present. It is an argument against theories of social Darwinism that emphasize competition and survival of the fittest, and against the romantic depictions by writers such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who thought that cooperation was motivated by universal love. Instead Kropotkin argues that mutual aid has pragmatic advantages for the survival of human and animal communities and, along with the conscience, has been promoted through natural selection. Mutual Aid is considered a fundamental text in anarchist communism.

Mutual Aid

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Author: Prince Petr Alekseevich KROPOTKIN

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:789445704

Category: Associations and associations

Page: 348

View: 966

Mutual Aid

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Author: Pëtr Alekseevič Kropotkin

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:247194144

Category:

Page: 348

View: 991