Natural Gas Engines

This book covers the various advanced reciprocating combustion engine technologies that utilize natural gas and alternative fuels for transportation and power generation applications.

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Author: Kalyan Kumar Srinivasan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789811333071

Category: Science

Page: 419

View: 770

This book covers the various advanced reciprocating combustion engine technologies that utilize natural gas and alternative fuels for transportation and power generation applications. It is divided into three major sections consisting of both fundamental and applied technologies to identify (but not limited to) clean, high-efficiency opportunities with natural gas fueling that have been developed through experimental protocols, numerical and high-performance computational simulations, and zero-dimensional, multizone combustion simulations. Particular emphasis is placed on statutes to monitor fine particulate emissions from tailpipe of engines operating on natural gas and alternative fuels.

Natural Gas Engines

This book covers the various advanced reciprocating combustion engine technologies that utilize natural gas and alternative fuels for transportation and power generation applications.

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Author: Kalyan Kumar Srinivasan

Publisher:

ISBN: 9811333084

Category: TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING

Page: 419

View: 147

This book covers the various advanced reciprocating combustion engine technologies that utilize natural gas and alternative fuels for transportation and power generation applications. It is divided into three major sections consisting of both fundamental and applied technologies to identify (but not limited to) clean, high-efficiency opportunities with natural gas fueling that have been developed through experimental protocols, numerical and high-performance computational simulations, and zero-dimensional, multizone combustion simulations. Particular emphasis is placed on statutes to monitor fine particulate emissions from tailpipe of engines operating on natural gas and alternative fuels.

Service Manual

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Author: Tractor Co Caterpillar

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:957026924

Category: Earthmoving machinery

Page:

View: 870

Natural Gas and Renewable Methane for Powertrains

This book focuses on natural gas and synthetic methane as contemporary and future energy sources.

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Author: Richard van Basshuysen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319232256

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 482

View: 105

This book focuses on natural gas and synthetic methane as contemporary and future energy sources. Following a historical overview, physical and chemical properties, occurrence, extraction, transportation and storage of natural gas are discussed. Sustainable production of natural gas and methane as well as production and storage of synthetic methane are scrutinized next. A substantial part of the book addresses construction of vehicles for natural and synthetic methane as well as large engines for industrial and maritime use. The last chapters present some perspectives on further uses of renewable liquid fuels as well as natural gas for industrial engines and gas power plants.

Advanced Direct Injection Combustion Engine Technologies and Development

As fuel prices escalate DI engines are expected to gain in popularity for automotive applications. This important book, in two volumes, reviews the science and technology of different types of DI combustion engines and their fuels.

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Author: H Zhao

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9781845697327

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 312

View: 933

Direct injection enables precise control of the fuel/air mixture so that engines can be tuned for improved power and fuel economy, but ongoing research challenges remain in improving the technology for commercial applications. As fuel prices escalate DI engines are expected to gain in popularity for automotive applications. This important book, in two volumes, reviews the science and technology of different types of DI combustion engines and their fuels. Volume 1 deals with direct injection gasoline and CNG engines, including history and essential principles, approaches to improved fuel economy, design, optimisation, optical techniques and their applications. Reviews key technologies for enhancing direct injection (DI) gasoline engines Examines approaches to improved fuel economy and lower emissions Discusses DI compressed natural gas (CNG) engines and biofuels

Dual Fuel Diesel Engines

Reflecting cutting-edge advancements in this rapidly expanding field, this timely book:Explains the benefits and challenges associated with internal combustion, compression ignition,

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Author: Ghazi A. Karim

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781498703093

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 315

View: 402

Dual-Fuel Diesel Engines offers a detailed discussion of different types of dual-fuel diesel engines, the gaseous fuels they can use, and their operational practices. Reflecting cutting-edge advancements in this rapidly expanding field, this timely book: Explains the benefits and challenges associated with internal combustion, compression ignition, gas-fueled, and premixed dual-fuel engines Explores methane and natural gas as engine fuels, as well as liquefied petroleum gases, hydrogen, and other alternative fuels Examines safety considerations, combustion of fuel gases, and the conversion of diesel engines to dual-fuel operation Addresses dual-fuel engine combustion, performance, knock, exhaust emissions, operational features, and management Describes dual-fuel engine operation on alternative fuels and the predictive modeling of dual-fuel engine performance Dual-Fuel Diesel Engines covers a variety of engine sizes and areas of application, with an emphasis on the transportation sector. The book provides a state-of-the-art reference for engineering students, practicing engineers, and scientists alike.

21st Century Complete Guide to Natural Gas Vehicles Covering Alternative Fuel Vehicles AFV Compressed Natural Gas CNG Liquefied Natural Gas LNG Technology Safety and Refueling Issues

This comprehensive and up-to-date book provides a unique guide to natural gas vehicles, compiling ten official documents with details of every aspect of the issue: CNG and LNG designs, success stories, references, information on safety and ...

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Author: Department of Energy

Publisher:

ISBN: 1973178567

Category:

Page: 339

View: 112

This comprehensive and up-to-date book provides a unique guide to natural gas vehicles, compiling ten official documents with details of every aspect of the issue: CNG and LNG designs, success stories, references, information on safety and refueling issues, and much more. Contents include: Part 1: UPS CNG Truck Fleet Final Results, Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project * Part 2: Clean Cities 2010 Vehicle Buyer's Guide - Natural Gas, Propane, Hybrid Electric, Ethanol, Biodiesel * Part 3: Natural Gas Vehicles: Status, Barriers, and Opportunities * Part 4: White Paper on Natural Gas Vehicles: Status, Barriers, and Opportunities * Part 5: Natural Gas Passenger Vehicles: Availability, Cost, and Performance * Part 6: Clean Alternative Fuels: Compressed Natural Gas * Part 7: Clean Alternative Fuels: Liquefied Natural Gas * Part 8: EPA Case Study: Tests Demonstrate Safety of Natural-Gas Vehicles for King County Police * Part 9: Resource Guide for Heavy-Duty LNG Vehicles, Infrastructure, and Support Operations * Part 10: Senate Hearing - Usage of Natural Gas - To Assess the Opportunities For, Current Level of Investment In, and Barriers to the Expanded Usage of Natural Gas as a Fuel for Transportation (2012) While natural gas is often used as the energy source for residential, commercial, and industrial processes, engines designed to run on gasoline or diesel can also be modified to operate on natural gas - a clean burning fuel. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) can be dedicated to natural gas as a fuel source, or they can be bi-fuel, running on either natural gas or gasoline, or natural gas or diesel, although most natural gas engines are spark ignited. Natural gas engine technologies can differ in the following ways: the method used to ignite the fuel in the cylinders, the air-fuel ratio, the compression ratio, and the resulting performance and emissions capabilities. Natural gas has a high octane rating, which in spark ignition engines (usual for CNG) allows an increase in power. However, natural gas occupies a larger volume in the cylinder than liquid fuels, reducing the number of oxygen molecules (share of air in the cylinder), which reduces power. The net effect on natural gas power vs. gasoline is relatively neutral. However, since it is a gaseous fuel at atmospheric pressure and occupies a considerably larger storage volume per unit of energy than refined petroleum liquids, it is stored on-board the vehicle in either a compressed gaseous or liquefied state. The storage requirements are still much greater than for refined petroleum products. This increases vehicle weight, which tends to reduce fuel economy. To become compressed natural gas (CNG), it is pressurized in a tank at up to 3,600 pounds per square inch. Typically, in sedans, the tank is mounted in the trunk or replaces the existing fuel tank; on trucks, the tank is mounted on the frame; and on buses, it is mounted on top of the roof. Although tanks can be made completely from metal, they are typically composed of metal liners reinforced by a wrap of composite fiber material with pressure-relief devices designed to withstand impact. Tanks do increase the vehicle weight, and with the lower energy density of natural gas, vehicle ranges are generally reduced. To become liquefied natural gas (LNG), natural gas is cooled to -260 °F and filtered to remove impurities. LNG is stored in double-wall, vacuum-insulated pressure tanks and is primarily used on heavy-duty trucks, providing increased range over CNG. NGVs and their respective fueling systems must meet stringent industry and government standards for compression, storage, and fueling. They are designed to perform safely during both normal operations and crash situations. Nozzles and vehicle receptacles are designed to keep fuel from escaping.

Using Natural Gas in Engines

These seminar proceedings describe the use of natural gas as a fuel for the production of mechanical/electrical energy using reciprocating and turbine engine technology. The power range of 1kw to 100mw is discussed.

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Author: PEP (Professional Engineering Publishers)

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: UOM:39015037779702

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 68

View: 370

These seminar proceedings describe the use of natural gas as a fuel for the production of mechanical/electrical energy using reciprocating and turbine engine technology. The power range of 1kw to 100mw is discussed.

One Dimensional Air System Modeling of Advanced Technology Compressed Natural Gas Engines

Abstract: With oil prices always being on the rise and CNG emerging as a cheaper and cleaner alternative.

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Author: Tamal Mukherjee

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:890207931

Category:

Page: 94

View: 964

Abstract: With oil prices always being on the rise and CNG emerging as a cheaper and cleaner alternative. This study was carried out to observe the performance characteristics of a 2012 Honda Civic CNG engine (only dedicated OEM passenger vehicle for CNG in USA). With CNG having lower CO2 emissions, higher octane number and being roughly half the price compared to gasoline, it is truly important to develop this emerging CNG market.

STATE OF THE ART AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN NATURAL GAS ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES

Current, state of the art natural gas engines provide the lowest emission commercial technology for use in medium heavy duty vehicles.

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Author: M. Dunn

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:316469999

Category:

Page: 6

View: 551

Current, state of the art natural gas engines provide the lowest emission commercial technology for use in medium heavy duty vehicles. NOx emission levels are 25 to 50% lower than state of the art diesel engines and PM levels are 90% lower than non-filter equipped diesels. Yet, in common with diesel engines, natural gas engines are challenged to become even cleaner and more efficient to meet environmental and end-user demands. Cummins Westport is developing two streams of technologies to achieve these goals for medium-heavy and heavy-heavy duty applications. For medium-heavy duty applications, lowest possible emissions are sought on SI engines without significant increase in complexity and with improvements in efficiency and BMEP. The selected path builds on the capabilities of the CWI Plus technology and recent diesel engine advances in NOx controls, providing potential to reduce emissions to 2010 values in an accelerated manner and without the use of Selective Catalytic Reduction or NOx Storage and Reduction technology. For heavy-heavy duty applications where high torque and fuel economy are of prime concern, the Westport-Cycle{trademark} technology is in field trial. This technology incorporates High Pressure Direct Injection (HPDI{trademark}) of natural gas with a diesel pilot ignition source. Both fuels are delivered through a single, dual common rail injector. The operating cycle is entirely unthrottled and maintains the high compression ratio of a diesel engine. As a result of burning 95% natural gas rather than diesel fuel, NOx emissions are halved and PM is reduced by around 70%. High levels of EGR can be applied while maintaining high combustion efficiency, resulting in extremely low NOx potential. Some recent studies have indicated that DPF-equipped diesels emit less nanoparticles than some natural gas vehicles [1]. It must be understood that the ultrafine particles emitted from SI natural gas engines are generally accepted to consist predominantly of VOCs [2], and that lubricating oil is a major contributor. Fitting an oxidation catalyst to the natural gas engine leads to a reduction in nanoparticles emissions in comparison to engines without aftertreatment [2,3,4]. In 2001, the Cummins Westport Plus technology was introduced with the C Gas Plus engine, a popular choice for transit bus applications. This incorporates drive by wire, fully integrated, closed loop electronic controls and a standard oxidation catalyst for all applications. The B Gas Plus and the B Propane Plus engines, with application in shuttle and school buses were launched in 2002 and 2003. The gas-specific oxidation catalyst operates in concert with an optimized ring-pack and liner combination to reduce total particulate mass below 0.01g/bhphr, combat ultrafine particles and control VOC emissions.