Waves and Particles in Light and Matter

A number of acknowledgements are due. We thank, first of all, the contributors, without whose constant dedication this volume could not have been published.

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Author: Augusto Garuccio

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461525509

Category: Science

Page: 628

View: 308

From September 24 through 30, 1992 the Workshop on "Waves and Parti cles in Light and Matter" was held in the Italian city of Trani in celebration of the centenary of Louis de Broglie's birth. As is well known, the relationship between quantum theory and ob jective reality was one of the main threads running through the researches of this French physicist. It was therefore in a fitting tribute to him on his 90th birthday that ten years ago an international conference on the same subject was convened in Perugia. On that occasion, physicists from all over the world interested in the problematics of wave-particle duality engaged in thoughtful debates (the proceedings of which were subsequently published) on recent theoretical and experimental developments in our understanding of the foundations of quantum mechanics. This time around, about 120 scientists, coming from 5 continents, in the warm and pleasant atmosphere of Trani's Colonna Conference Center focussed their discussions on recent results concerned with the EPR para dox, matter-interferometry, reality of de Broglie's waves, photon detection, macroscopic quantum coherence, alternative theories to usual quantum mechanics, special relativity, state reduction, and other related topics. The workshop was organized in plenary sessions, round tables, and poster sessions, and the present volume collects most-but not all-of the presented papers. A number of acknowledgements are due. We thank, first of all, the contributors, without whose constant dedication this volume could not have been published.

Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles

Monograph on multiple scattering of light by small particles; resource for science professionals, engineers, and graduate students.

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Author: Michael I. Mishchenko

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521834902

Category: Science

Page: 478

View: 448

Monograph on multiple scattering of light by small particles; resource for science professionals, engineers, and graduate students.

Light Scattering by Small Particles

The formal “absorption” is not absorption in the proper sense but consists of
scattering in all directions plus, possibly, absorption inside the scattering particles
. The light “reflected” back from the slab cannot be derived from a formula based
on ...

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Author: H. C. van de Hulst

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486139753

Category: Science

Page: 496

View: 597

Comprehensive treatment of light-scattering properties of small, independent particles, including a full range of useful approximation methods for researchers in chemistry, meteorology, and astronomy. 46 tables. 59 graphs. 44 illustrations.

Characterisation of Bio Particles from Light Scattering

Introduction Light scattering is a complex phenomenon that has found many uses
in bioparticle discrimination. Each of the cellular components that have a
refractive index different from that of the surrounding medium scatters light out of
the ...

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Author: Valeri P. Maltsev

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110915556

Category: Mathematics

Page: 139

View: 232

The primary aim of this monograph is to provide a systematic state-of-the-art summary of the light scattering of bioparticles, including a brief consideration of analytical and numerical methods for computing electromagnetic scattering by single particles, a detailed discussion of the instrumental approach used in measurement of light scattering, an analysis of the methods used in solution of the inverse light scattering problem, and an introduction of the results dealing with practical analysis of biosamples. Considering the widespread need for this information in optics, remote sensing, engineering, medicine, and biology, the book is useful to many graduate students, scientists, and engineers working on various aspects of electromagnetic scattering and its applications.

Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles

Special features and important topics covered in this book include: * Classical theories of optical properties based on idealized models * Measurements for three representative materials: magnesium oxide, aluminum, and water * An extensive ...

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Author: Craig F. Bohren

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527618163

Category: Science

Page: 544

View: 646

Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles Treating absorption and scattering in equal measure, this self-contained, interdisciplinary study examines and illustrates how small particles absorb and scatter light. The authors emphasize that any discussion of the optical behavior of small particles is inseparable from a full understanding of the optical behavior of the parent material-bulk matter. To divorce one concept from the other is to render any study on scattering theory seriously incomplete. Special features and important topics covered in this book include: * Classical theories of optical properties based on idealized models * Measurements for three representative materials: magnesium oxide, aluminum, and water * An extensive discussion of electromagnetic theory * Numerous exact and approximate solutions to various scattering problems * Examples and applications from physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics, and biophysics * Some 500 references emphasizing work done since Kerker's 1969 work on scattering theory * Computer programs for calculating scattering by spheres, coated spheres, and infinite cylinders

Faster than Light Particles

This report documents an analytical prediction of some of the characteristics which presently undiscovered faster-than-light sub-atomic particles (called tachyons) must possess if they are to exist without violating the Theory of Special ...

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Author: Edward A. Puscher

Publisher:

ISBN: IND:39000001901219

Category: Relativity (Physics).

Page: 37

View: 221

This report documents an analytical prediction of some of the characteristics which presently undiscovered faster-than-light sub-atomic particles (called tachyons) must possess if they are to exist without violating the Theory of Special Relatively. A brief review of necessary concepts from the Special Theory is included so that the reader might more readily understand the reasoning as it is developed. Necessary, but not all, characteristics of tachyons are then identified and presented. Finally, an interesting potential relationship between tachyons and anti-gravity is discussed. (Author).

Light Scattering by Particles

This book presents the separation-of-variables and T-matrix methods of calculating the scattering of electromagnetic waves by particles.

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Author: Peter W. Barber

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 997150832X

Category: Science

Page: 261

View: 216

This book presents the separation-of-variables and T-matrix methods of calculating the scattering of electromagnetic waves by particles. Analytical details and computer programs are provided for determining the scattering and absorption characteristics of the finite-thickness slab, infinite circular cylinder (normal incidence), general axisymmetric particle, and sphere.The computer programs are designed to generate data that is easy to graph and visualize, and test cases in the book illustrate the capabilities of the programs. The connection between the theory and the computer programs is reinforced by references in the computer programs to equations in the text. This cross-referencing will help the reader understand the computer programs, and, if necessary, modify them for other purposes.

Light Scattering by Particles in Water

Optical modeling of the interaction of light with small particles has applications in
virtually every branch of environmental sciences. This is a consequence of the
importance of this interaction in many natural processes occurring in natural ...

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Author: Miroslaw Jonasz

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080548679

Category: Science

Page: 714

View: 131

Light scattering-based methods are used to characterize small particles suspended in water in a wide range of disciplines ranging from oceanography, through medicine, to industry. The scope and accuracy of these methods steadily increases with the progress in light scattering research. This book focuses on the theoretical and experimental foundations of the study and modeling of light scattering by particles in water and critically evaluates the key constraints of light scattering models. It begins with a brief review of the relevant theoretical fundamentals of the interaction of light with condensed matter, followed by an extended discussion of the basic optical properties of pure water and seawater and the physical principles that explain them. The book continues with a discussion of key optical features of the pure water/seawater and the most common components of natural waters. In order to clarify and put in focus some of the basic physical principles and most important features of the experimental data on light scattering by particles in water, the authors employ simple models. The book concludes with extensive critical reviews of the experimental constraints of light scattering models: results of measurements of light scattering and of the key properties of the particles: size distribution, refractive index (composition), structure, and shape. These reviews guide the reader through literature scattered among more than 210 scientific journals and periodicals which represent a wide range of disciplines. A special emphasis is put on the methods of measuring both light scattering and the relevant properties of the particles, because principles of these methods may affect interpretation and applicability of the results. The book includes extensive guides to literature on light scattering data and instrumentation design, as well as on the data for size distributions, refractive indices, and shapes typical of particles in natural waters. It also features a comprehensive index, numerous cross-references, and a reference list with over 1370 entries. An errata sheet for this work can be found at: http://www.tpdsci.com/Ref/Jonasz_M_2007_LightScatE.php *Extensive reference section provides handy compilations of knowledge on the designs of light scattering meters, sources of experimental data, and more *Worked exercises and examples throughout

Quantum Mechanics

You learn how Louis de Broglie showed that this weird wave-particle duality also applies to matter, and how Max Born inferred that this relationship makes quantum mechanics inherently probabilistic.

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Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1181853585

Category: Physics

Page:

View: 164

Light propagates through space as a wave, but it exchanges its energy in the form of particles. You learn how Louis de Broglie showed that this weird wave-particle duality also applies to matter, and how Max Born inferred that this relationship makes quantum mechanics inherently probabilistic.

Light Its Interaction with Art and Antiquities

This factor is the size of the particles . Particle size is extremely important in light
scattering and needs careful attention for many applications . For centuries artists
have known from experience that excessive grinding of certain pigments leads ...

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Author: Thomas B. Brill

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306404168

Category: Science

Page: 287

View: 599

This limited facsimile edition has been issued for purpose of keeping this title avalaible to the scientific community.

Light Scattering by Optically Soft Particles

When a beam of light is incident on this layer a portion of light is backscattered by
nuclei in the cells. ... À 12 2 À 2 Àk 2n À 1 4 4 6 2 2 3 4: 5:86 It has been checked
that the approximation is valid for soft particles in the particle size range 5 x 50.

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Author: Subodh K. Sharma

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540376644

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 195

View: 265

This book deals with a particular class of approximation methods in the context of light scattering by small particles. Soft particles occur in ocean optics, biomedical optics, atmospheric optics and in many industrial applications. This class of approximations has been termed as eikonal or soft particle approximations. The study of these approximations is very important because soft particles occur abundantly in nature.

Particle Characterization Light Scattering Methods

Light Scattering Phenomena and Technologies Light is electromagnetic radiation
in the frequency range from ... As light propagates it has the characteristics of
both a transverse wave (a light wave) as well as a particle (a photon). As a wave
 ...

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Author: Renliang Xu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306471247

Category: Science

Page: 399

View: 887

Particle characterization is an important component in product research and development, manufacture, and quality control of particulate materials and an important tool in the frontier of sciences, such as in biotechnology and nanotechnology. This book systematically describes one major branch of modern particle characterization technology - the light scattering methods. This is the first monograph in particle science and technology covering the principles, instrumentation, data interpretation, applications, and latest experimental development in laser diffraction, optical particle counting, photon correlation spectroscopy, and electrophoretic light scattering. In addition, a summary of all major particle sizing and other characterization methods, basic statistics and sample preparation techniques used in particle characterization, as well as almost 500 latest references are provided. The book is a must for industrial users of light scattering techniques characterizing a variety of particulate systems and for undergraduate or graduate students who want to learn how to use light scattering to study particular materials, in chemical engineering, material sciences, physical chemistry and other related fields.

Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles

A great variety of science and engineering disciplines have significant interest in
scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation by small particles. For
example, this subject is important to climatology because the Earth's radiation ...

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Author: Michael I. Mishchenko

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080510205

Category: Science

Page: 690

View: 930

There is hardly a field of science or engineering that does not have some interest in light scattering by small particles. For example, this subject is important to climatology because the energy budget for the Earth's atmosphere is strongly affected by scattering of solar radiation by cloud and aerosol particles, and the whole discipline of remote sensing relies largely on analyzing the parameters of radiation scattered by aerosols, clouds, and precipitation. The scattering of light by spherical particles can be easily computed using the conventional Mie theory. However, most small solid particles encountered in natural and laboratory conditions have nonspherical shapes. Examples are soot and mineral aerosols, cirrus cloud particles, snow and frost crystals, ocean hydrosols, interplanetary and cometary dust grains, and microorganisms. It is now well known that scattering properties of nonspherical particles can differ dramatically from those of "equivalent" (e.g., equal-volume or equal-surface-area) spheres. Therefore, the ability to accurately compute or measure light scattering by nonspherical particles in order to clearly understand the effects of particle nonsphericity on light scattering is very important. The rapid improvement of computers and experimental techniques over the past 20 years and the development of efficient numerical approaches have resulted in major advances in this field which have not been systematically summarized. Because of the universal importance of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical particles, papers on different aspects of this subject are scattered over dozens of diverse research and engineering journals. Often experts in one discipline (e.g., biology) are unaware of potentially useful results obtained in another discipline (e.g., antennas and propagation). This leads to an inefficient use of the accumulated knowledge and unnecessary redundancy in research activities. This book offers the first systematic and unified discussion of light scattering by nonspherical particles and its practical applications and represents the state-of-the-art of this important research field. Individual chapters are written by leading experts in respective areas and cover three major disciplines: theoretical and numerical techniques, laboratory measurements, and practical applications. An overview chapter provides a concise general introduction to the subject of nonspherical scattering and should be especially useful to beginners and those interested in fast practical applications. The audience for this book will include graduate students, scientists, and engineers working on specific aspects of electromagnetic scattering by small particles and its applications in remote sensing, geophysics, astrophysics, biomedical optics, and optical engineering. The first systematic and comprehensive treatment of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical particles and its applications Individual chapters are written by leading experts in respective areas Includes a survey of all the relevant literature scattered over dozens of basic and applied research journals Consistent use of unified definitions and notation makes the book a coherent volume An overview chapter provides a concise general introduction to the subject of light scattering by nonspherical particles Theoretical chapters describe specific easy-to-use computer codes publicly available on the World Wide Web Extensively illustrated with over 200 figures, 4 in color

Light Scattering From Micrometric Mineral Dust and Aggregate Particles

McGuire AF, Hapke BW (1995) An experimental study of light scattering by large,
irregular particles. Icarus 113(1):134–155 40. Mie G (1908) Beiträge zur optik
trüber medien, speziell kolloidaler metallösungen. Ann Phys 330(3):377–445 41.

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Author: Llorenç Cremonesi

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030567873

Category:

Page:

View: 871

Scattering Absorption and Emission of Light by Small Particles

A thorough and up-to-date treatment of electromagnetic scattering by small particles.

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Author: Michael I. Mishchenko

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 052178252X

Category: Science

Page: 445

View: 938

A thorough and up-to-date treatment of electromagnetic scattering by small particles.

Light Scattering by Systems of Particles

The null-field method has been introduced by Waterman [253] as a technique for
computing electromagnetic scattering by perfectly conducting particles. Later,
Bates [10] studied the same problem, followed by Waterman's applications of his
 ...

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Author: Adrian Doicu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540336976

Category: Science

Page: 322

View: 415

This book develops the theory of the null-field method (also called T-matrix method), covering almost all aspects and current applications. This book also incorporates FORTRAN programs and simulation results. Worked examples of the application of the FORTRAN programs show readers how to adapt or modify the programs for their specific application.

Application of Light Scattering to Coatings

So far, we have considered the scattering phenomenon itself—Mie's theory of
individual particles scattering light and the effects that different particle attributes
have on maximum scattering strength, and the theory of groups of particles ...

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Author: Michael P. Diebold

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319120157

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 196

View: 184

The book begins with the fundamentals of light scattering, first by individual particles, then by small groups of particles, and finally by the trillions of particles present in a real-life paint film. From there, Dr. Diebold focuses on application of these fundamentals to paint formulation. The scope includes both theory and practice with an emphasis on application (from both performance and cost standpoints). The book gives a clear understanding of light scattering principles and application of these principles to paint formulation (with a focus on TiO2 – the strongest scattering material available to paint formulators). The reader will be in a position to formulate and reformulate paints for maximum cost effectiveness. Application of Light Scattering to Coatings: A Users Guide is ideal for a range of professions working in paint formulation and manufacturing. This book also: Distills difficult theories (light scattering, paint formulation) into easy-to-understand concepts Adopts a qualitative perspective, with minimal use of complex equations, making key scientific concepts accessible to all paint formulators without a prerequisite of higher mathematics Offers an accessible resource for formulators new to the field while maintaining a high degree of relevance to experienced coating formulators Discusses the interplay between resin, TiO2 pigments, and paint extenders with regard to paint performance and cost Presents an unbiased assessment of opacifying potential of TiO2 alternatives Outlines strategies for minimizing overall costs of paints.

Particle Count Method Development for Concentration Standards and Sample Stabilization

Electrical double layers, oxide layers, and/or adsorbed gas film on the conductive
particles also help to reduce their conductivity and improves instrument response
. Light Obscuration Instruments Light-based instruments are the most common ...

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Author: Zaid K. Chowdhury

Publisher: American Water Works Association

ISBN: 9781583210246

Category: Particle counting (Water treatment plants)

Page: 167

View: 915

Light Can Be Both Wave and Particle

From National Book Award Winner Ellen Gilchrist, a pillar of Southern literature hailed by the Washington Post as “a national treasure,” comes a colorful collection of short stories integrating favorite characters with captivating ...

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Author: Ellen Gilchrist

Publisher: Diversion Books

ISBN: 9781635763454

Category: Fiction

Page: 180

View: 480

Fiction from a National Book Award-winning author and “short-story writer of substantial gifts and reputation” (The New York Times). From National Book Award Winner Ellen Gilchrist, a pillar of Southern literature hailed by the Washington Post as “a national treasure,” comes a colorful collection of short stories integrating favorite characters with captivating newcomers. Rhoda’s reveling in her childhood and infinite possibility in “The Tree Fort” and “The Time Capsule” is juxtaposed with her darker adulthood in “Mexico.” Nora Jane returns alongside Lin Tan Sing, a Chinese medical student and geneticist who predicts the birth of her twins. Fans of Gilchrist won’t want to miss the author’s exploration of the many stages of life—and the lightness and darkness each can bring. “Several stories in Gilchrist’s latest collection are distinguished by her old magic—they have energy and gusto and humor, and a dark layer of knowledge beneath their nostalgic tone.”—Publishers Weekly “A validation of the author’s skill and versatility. Gilchrist creates new experiences for characters from earlier stories and … creates new characters who reveal her skill in portraying character and place.”—Library Journal

Instrumental Traditions and Theories of Light

He proposed that a ray of light was composed of many rotating spherical particles
at equal intervals. Every particle of light had two poles of opposite “qualities.” If
two of these particles were side by side, they either reinforced or neutralized ...

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Author: Xiang Chen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401141956

Category: Science

Page: 213

View: 532

An analysis of the optical revolution in the context of early 19th century Britain. Far from merely involving the replacement of one optical theory by another, the revolution also involved substantial changes in instruments and the practices that surrounded them. People's judgements about classification, explanation and evaluation were affected by the way they used such optical instruments as spectroscopes, telescopes, polarisers, photometers, gratings, prisms and apertures. There were two instrumental traditions in this historical period, each of which nurtured a body of practice that exemplified how optical instruments should be operated, and especially how the eye should be used. These traditions functioned just like paradigms, shaping perspectives and even world views. Readership: Scholars and graduate students in the history of science, history of instrument, philosophy of science and science studies. Can also be used as a textbook in graduate courses on 19th century physics.