POLAR NIGHT Marine Ecology

Until recently, the prevailing view of marine life at high latitudes has been that organisms enter a general resting state during the dark Polar Night and that the system only awakens with the return of the sun.

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Author: Jørgen Berge

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030332082

Category: Science

Page: 375

View: 412

Until recently, the prevailing view of marine life at high latitudes has been that organisms enter a general resting state during the dark Polar Night and that the system only awakens with the return of the sun. Recent research, however, with coordinated, multidisciplinary field campaigns based on the high Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard, have provided a radical new perspective. Instead of a system in dormancy, a new perspective of a system in full operation and with high levels of activity across all major phyla is emerging. Examples of such activities and processes include: Active marine organisms at sea surface, water column and the sea-floor. At surface we find active foraging in seabirds and fish, in the water column we find a high biodiversity and activity of zooplankton and larvae such as active light induced synchronized diurnal vertical migration, and at seafloor there is a high biodiversity in benthic animals and macroalgae. The Polar Night is a period for reproduction in many benthic and pelagic taxa, mass occurrence of ghost shrimps (Caprellides), high abundance of Ctenophores, physiological evidence of micro- and macroalgal cells that are ready to utilize the first rays of light when they appear, deep water fishes found at water surface in the Polar night, and continuous growth of bivalves throughout the winter. These findings not only begin to shape a new paradigm for marine winter ecology in the high Arctic, but also provide conclusive evidence for a top-down controlled system in which primary production levels are close to zero. In an era of environmental change that is accelerated at high latitudes, we believe that this new insight is likely to strongly impact how the scientific community views the high latitude marine ecosystem. Despite the overwhelming darkness, the main environmental variable affecting marine organisms in the Polar Night is in fact light. The light regime during the Polar Night is unique with respect to light intensity, spectral composition of light and photoperiod.

Arctic Ecology

During the last decade increased efforts have been made to study Arctic pelagic ecosystems also during the polar night, concluding that the paradigm that the Arctic marine ecosystem goes completely dormant during winter may not hold ...

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Author: David N. Thomas

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118846544

Category: Science

Page: 468

View: 781

The Arctic is often portrayed as being isolated, but the reality is that the connectivity with the rest of the planet is huge, be it through weather patterns, global ocean circulation, and large-scale migration patterns to name but a few. There is a huge amount of public interest in the ‘changing Arctic’, especially in terms of the rapid changes taking place in ecosystems and exploitation of resources. There can be no doubt that the Arctic is at the forefront of the international environmental science agenda, both from a scientific aspect, and also from a policy/environmental management perspective. This book aims to stimulate a wide audience to think about the Arctic by highlighting the remarkable breadth of what it means to study its ecology. Arctic Ecology seeks to systematically introduce the diverse array of ecologies within the Arctic region. As the Arctic rapidly changes, understanding the fundamental ecology underpinning the Arctic is paramount to understanding the consequences of what such change will inevitably bring about. Arctic Ecology is designed to provide graduate students of environmental science, ecology and climate change with a source where Arctic ecology is addressed specifically, with issues due to climate change clearly discussed. It will also be of use to policy-makers, researchers and international agencies who are focusing on ecological issues and effects of global climate change in the Arctic. About the Editor David N. Thomas is Professor of Arctic Ecosystem Research in the Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki. Previously he spent 24 years in the School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Wales. He studies marine systems, with a particular emphasis on sea ice and land-coast interactions in the Arctic and Southern Oceans as well as the Baltic Sea. He also edited a related book: Sea Ice, 3rd Edition (2017), which is also published by Wiley-Blackwell.

Effects of Ice Loss on Marine Biodiversity

Structural confirmation of the sea ice biomarker IP25 found in Arctic marine sediments. Environ. ... “Zooplankton in the polar night,” in Polar Night Marine Ecology, eds J. Berge, G. Johnsen, and J. H. Cohen (Cham: Springer), 113–159.

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Author: Katrin Linse

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889719778

Category: Science

Page: 181

View: 345

YOUMARES 9 the Oceans Our Research Our Future

13.2.1 Arctic Marine Microbial Ecology in the Svalbard Polar Night Martí Amargant-Arumí1∗, Rolf Gradinger1, Aud Larsen2, Lena Seuthe1 1UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, Postbox 6050, Tromsø, Norway 2Uni Research Environment, ...

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Author: Simon Jungblut

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030203894

Category: Aquatic biology

Page: 378

View: 911

This open access book summarizes peer-reviewed articles and the abstracts of oral and poster presentations given during the YOUMARES 9 conference which took place in Oldenburg, Germany, in September 2018. The aims of this book are to summarize state-of-the-art knowledge in marine sciences and to inspire scientists of all career stages in the development of further research. These conferences are organized by and for young marine researchers. Qualified early-career researchers, who moderated topical sessions during the conference, contributed literature reviews on specific topics within their research field. .

Marine Ecology

dark for 24 h per day and when it was generally considered that marine ecosystems were in a state of shut-down. Migrations through the polar night may be driven by lunar illumination cycles (Last et al. 2016), leading to the suggestion ...

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Author: Michel J. Kaiser

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198717850

Category: Marine ecology

Page: 605

View: 211

Marine Ecology: Processes, Systems, and Impacts offers a carefully balanced and stimulating survey of marine ecology, introducing the key processes and systems from which the marine environment is formed, and the issues and challenges which surround its future conservation.

The Senses A Comprehensive Reference

Light in the polar night. In: Berge, J., Johnsen, G., Cohen, J.H. (Eds.), POLAR NIGHT Marine Ecology. Advances in Polar Ecology, vol. 4. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 37–66. Coulson, K.L., 1988. Polarization and intensity of light in ...

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Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128054093

Category: Medical

Page: 5208

View: 957

The Senses: A Comprehensive Reference, Second Edition, is a comprehensive reference work covering the range of topics that constitute current knowledge of the neural mechanisms underlying the different senses. This important work provides the most up-to-date, cutting-edge, comprehensive reference combining volumes on all major sensory modalities in one set. Offering 264 chapters from a distinguished team of international experts, The Senses lays out current knowledge on the anatomy, physiology, and molecular biology of sensory organs, in a collection of comprehensive chapters spanning 4 volumes. Topics covered include the perception, psychophysics, and higher order processing of sensory information, as well as disorders and new diagnostic and treatment methods. Written for a wide audience, this reference work provides students, scholars, medical doctors, as well as anyone interested in neuroscience, a comprehensive overview of the knowledge accumulated on the function of sense organs, sensory systems, and how the brain processes sensory input. As with the first edition, contributions from leading scholars from around the world will ensure The Senses offers a truly international portrait of sensory physiology. The set is the definitive reference on sensory neuroscience and provides the ultimate entry point into the review and original literature in Sensory Neuroscience enabling students and scientists to delve into the subject and deepen their knowledge. All-inclusive coverage of topics: updated edition offers readers the only current reference available covering neurobiology, physiology, anatomy, and molecular biology of sense organs and the processing of sensory information in the brain Authoritative content: world-leading contributors provide readers with a reputable, dynamic and authoritative account of the topics under discussion Comprehensive-style content: in-depth, complex coverage of topics offers students at upper undergraduate level and above full insight into topics under discussion

Whither the Arctic Ocean

Polar Night Marine Ecology: Life and Light in the Dead of Night. In Advances in Polar Ecology series. Springer International Publishing, 2020. Wassmann, P. “Arctic marine ecosystems in an era of rapid climate change.

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Author: Guillermo Auad

Publisher: Fundacion BBVA

ISBN: 9788492937820

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 868

Climate change in the Arctic Ocean has stirred a remarkable surge of interest and concern. Study after study has revealed the astonishing speed of physical, chemical, ecological, and economic change throughout the expanse of the Arctic. What is more, the consequences of the changing Arctic are not restricted to the Arctic itself, but affect everyone in the Northern Hemisphere, ranging as they do from extreme weather to resource availability and food security, with implications for politics, economics, and sociology. The challenge is to comprehend the full extent and variety of these consequences, and meeting this challenge will demand a multi- and transdisciplinary understanding. Only by this means can we hope to map out a knowledge-based ecosystem and move toward knowledge-based resource management—the essential precondition for any sustainable future. In this book, leading international experts, from many felds of science and across the entire pan-Arctic region, give their specifc takes on where the Arctic Ocean is heading. All have taken care in their writing not to exclude non-experts, in the conviction that multi- and transdisciplinarity can only be achieved when communication and outreach are not tribal in nature. The recurrent guiding theme throughout these pages is “Whith -er the Arctic Ocean?” Taken in concert, the essays synthesize the current state of scientifc knowledge to project how climate change may impact on the Arctic Ocean and the continents around it. How can and how should we prepare for the imminent future that is already lapping at the threshold of the commons? What readers will hopefully take from this multi- and transdisciplinary endeavor is not the individual perspective of each contribution, but the picture that emerges across the entire suite of essays. As we move into a near future that will encompass both the probable and surprises, this book attempts to conjure the multi-dimensional space in which a sustainable future must be brought into being.

Sustainability Technology and Finance

Polar Night Marine Ecology—Life and Light in the Dead of Night. Advances in Polar Biology. Cham: Springer Nature. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (2019). The Science We Need for the Ocean We Want: The United Nations Decade of ...

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Author: Herman Bril

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9781000789461

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 292

View: 449

This book explores the swiftly emerging nexus between sustainability, finance, and technology. Leading practitioners and academic thought leaders reflect on the ways in which technology and digitalization shape how sustainable finance professionals address environmental, social, and governance (ESG) issues. Together, the contributors identify three spheres in which technology shapes how investors make sense of such issues: ESG and technology: finance professionals need to know about how technological innovations, such as chemical recycling for plastics, in the real economy shape firms’ ESG performance; ESG through technology: technological developments, such as AI and blockchain, can enable finance professionals to offer more fine-grained ESG analyses; and ESG as technology: the ESG agenda itself is influenced by technological developments that are not well understood by practitioners (e.g., data mining for Bitcoin creating significant emissions). Using practically relevant examples and recent insights from people working in the field, the book explores the linkages between sustainability, technology, and finance in different contexts and shows how practitioners can accelerate needed change processes. This book primarily addresses practitioners in companies and investment firms as well as students enrolled in executive education and MBA programs.

State of the Arctic Marine Biodiversity Report

Zooplankton from the Arctic Ocean and adjacent Canadian waters . Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada , 22 ( 2 ) : 543-564 . Grigor , J.J. , Marais , A.E. , Falk - Petersen , S. and Varpe , O. 2015 . Polar night ecology of ...

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Author:

Publisher: Government Printing Office

ISBN: 016093995X

Category: Biodiversity

Page: 200

View: 809

This is the first report of the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to summarize status and trends in biotic elements in the arctic marine environment. The effort has identified knowledge gaps in circumpolar biodiversity monitoring. CBMP is the cornerstone program of Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF).