Quantum Mechanics for Nanostructures

Textbook introducing engineers to quantum mechanics and nanostructures, covering the fundamentals and applications to nanoscale materials and nanodevices.

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Author: Vladimir V. Mitin

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521763660

Category: Science

Page: 431

View: 212

Textbook introducing engineers to quantum mechanics and nanostructures, covering the fundamentals and applications to nanoscale materials and nanodevices.

Dissipative Quantum Mechanics of Nanostructures

In other words, electrons can lose their energy and ability for quantum interference even at very low temperatures. These two different, but related, processes are at the heart of all quantum phenomena discussed in this book.

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Author: Andrei D. Zaikin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000024203

Category: Science

Page: 926

View: 247

Continuing miniaturization of electronic devices, together with the quickly growing number of nanotechnological applications, demands a profound understanding of the underlying physics. Most of the fundamental problems of modern condensed matter physics involve various aspects of quantum transport and fluctuation phenomena at the nanoscale. In nanostructures, electrons are usually confined to a limited volume and interact with each other and lattice ions, simultaneously suffering multiple scattering events on impurities, barriers, surface imperfections, and other defects. Electron interaction with other degrees of freedom generally yields two major consequences, quantum dissipation and quantum decoherence. In other words, electrons can lose their energy and ability for quantum interference even at very low temperatures. These two different, but related, processes are at the heart of all quantum phenomena discussed in this book. This book presents copious details to facilitate the understanding of the basic physics behind a result and the learning to technically reproduce the result without delving into extra literature. The book subtly balances the description of theoretical methods and techniques and the display of the rich landscape of the physical phenomena that can be accessed by these methods. It is useful for a broad readership ranging from master’s and PhD students to postdocs and senior researchers.

Nanostructures

This is due to a combination of three factors: the reduced size of nano-objects, the increasing power of computers, and the development of new theoretical methods.

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Author: Christophe Jean Delerue

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783662089033

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 305

View: 495

Provides the theoretical background needed by physicists, engineers and students to simulate nano-devices, semiconductor quantum dots and molecular devices. It presents in a unified way the theoretical concepts, the more recent semi-empirical and ab initio methods, and their application to experiments. The topics include quantum confinement, dielectric and optical properties, non-radiative processes, defects and impurities, and quantum transport. This guidebook not only provides newcomers with an accessible overview (requiring only basic knowledge of quantum mechanics and solid-state physics) but also provides active researchers with practical simulation tools.

Quantum Networks

The focus here is on density matrix theory cast into a representation - SU(n) algebra - since this is particularly adapted to describing networks of quasi-molecular subsystems.

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Author: Günter Mahler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783662031766

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 474

The focus here is on density matrix theory cast into a representation - SU(n) algebra - since this is particularly adapted to describing networks of quasi-molecular subsystems. This approach allows an understanding of how classical properties emerge within a quantum mechanical world and how non-classical features survive in a classical environment. The authors introduce and discuss non-classical aspects such as single-particle and multi-particle coherence such that a picture evolves of how these features are generated and destroyed by interactions with the environment. The outcome is a description of how the dynamics of individual quantum systems are interrelated with information dynamics.

Problem Solving in Quantum Mechanics

PROBLEM SOLVING IN QUANTUM MECHANICS FROM BASICS TO REAL-WORLD APPLICATIONS FOR MATERIALS SCIENTISTS, APPLIED PHYSICISTS, AND DEVICES ENGINEERS This topical and timely textbook is a collection of problems for students, researchers, and ...

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Author: Marc Cahay

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118988756

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 152

"A topical and timely useful textbook dealing with the practical aspects of quantum mechanics, including discussions on a broad range of topics including recent technological developments in superconducting Josephson junctions, atomic cavities, lasers, gated quantum dots, optical measurements, non-linear optics, spintronic devices, etc."--

Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Nanotechnology and Information Science

This book provides a novel approach to Quantum Mechanics whilst also giving readers the requisite background and training for the scientists and engineers of the 21st Century who need to come to grips with quantum phenomena The fundamentals ...

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Author: Yehuda B. Band

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780444537874

Category: Science

Page: 992

View: 261

Quantum mechanics transcends and supplants classical mechanics at the atomic and subatomic levels. It provides the underlying framework for many subfields of physics, chemistry and materials science, including condensed matter physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, quantum chemistry, particle physics, and nuclear physics. It is the only way we can understand the structure of materials, from the semiconductors in our computers to the metal in our automobiles. It is also the scaffolding supporting much of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The purpose of this book is to present the fundamentals of quantum theory within a modern perspective, with emphasis on applications to nanoscience and nanotechnology, and information-technology. As the frontiers of science have advanced, the sort of curriculum adequate for students in the sciences and engineering twenty years ago is no longer satisfactory today. Hence, the emphasis on new topics that are not included in older reference texts, such as quantum information theory, decoherence and dissipation, and on applications to nanotechnology, including quantum dots, wires and wells. This book provides a novel approach to Quantum Mechanics whilst also giving readers the requisite background and training for the scientists and engineers of the 21st Century who need to come to grips with quantum phenomena The fundamentals of quantum theory are provided within a modern perspective, with emphasis on applications to nanoscience and nanotechnology, and information-technology Older books on quantum mechanics do not contain the amalgam of ideas, concepts and tools necessary to prepare engineers and scientists to deal with the new facets of quantum mechanics and their application to quantum information science and nanotechnology As the frontiers of science have advanced, the sort of curriculum adequate for students in the sciences and engineering twenty years ago is no longer satisfactory today There are many excellent quantum mechanics books available, but none have the emphasis on nanotechnology and quantum information science that this book has

Introduction to Nanophotonics

Nanophotonics is where photonics merges with nanoscience and nanotechnology, and where spatial confinement considerably modifies light propagation and light-matter interaction.

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Author: Sergey V. Gaponenko

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139643566

Category: Science

Page:

View: 534

Nanophotonics is where photonics merges with nanoscience and nanotechnology, and where spatial confinement considerably modifies light propagation and light-matter interaction. Describing the basic phenomena, principles, experimental advances and potential impact of nanophotonics, this graduate-level textbook is ideal for students in physics, optical and electronic engineering and materials science. The textbook highlights practical issues, material properties and device feasibility, and includes the basic optical properties of metals, semiconductors and dielectrics. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and theoretical issues are reduced to a conceptual level. Each chapter ends in problems so readers can monitor their understanding of the material presented. The introductory quantum theory of solids and size effects in semiconductors are considered to give a parallel discussion of wave optics and wave mechanics of nanostructures. The physical and historical interplay of wave optics and quantum mechanics is traced. Nanoplasmonics, an essential part of modern photonics, is also included.

Nanostructures and Nanotechnology

A carefully developed textbook focusing on the fundamental principles of nanoscale science and nanotechnology.

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Author: Douglas Natelson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521877008

Category: Science

Page: 639

View: 867

A carefully developed textbook focusing on the fundamental principles of nanoscale science and nanotechnology.

Quantum Physics for Scientists and Technologists

PROBLEM 11.3 Calculate the number of quantum dots with 5-nm diameter that
you can place back to back on the width of your thumb. Solution: ... The
nanostructures discussed here are certainly in the realm of quantum mechanics.
In other ...

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Author: Paul Sanghera

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470922699

Category: Computers

Page: 544

View: 913

Quantum Physics for Scientists and Technologists is a self-contained, comprehensive review of this complex branch of science. The book demystifies difficult concepts and views the subject through non-physics fields such as computer science, biology, chemistry, and nanotechnology. It explains key concepts and phenomena in the language of non-physics majors and with simple math, assuming no prior knowledge of the topic. This cohesive book begins with the wavefunction to develop the basic principles of quantum mechanics such as the uncertainty principle and wave-particle duality. Comprehensive coverage of quantum theory is presented, supported by experimental results and explained through applications and examples without the use of abstract and complex mathematical tools or formalisms. From there, the book: Takes the mystery out of the Schrodinger equation, the fundamental equation of quantum physics, by applying it to atoms Shows how quantum mechanics explains the periodic table of elements Introduces the quantum mechanical concept of spin and spin quantum number, along with Pauli's Exclusion Principle regarding the occupation of quantum states Addresses quantum states of molecules in terms of rotation and vibration of diatomic molecules Explores the interface between classical statistical mechanics and quantum statistical mechanics Discusses quantum mechanics as a common thread through different fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology Each chapter features real-world applications of one or more quantum mechanics principles. "Study Checkpoints" and problems with solutions are presented throughout to make difficult concepts easy to understand. In addition, pictures, tables, and diagrams with full explanations are used to present data and further explain difficult concepts. This book is designed as a complete course in quantum mechanics for senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students in non-physics majors. It also applies to courses such as modern physics, physical chemistry and nanotechnology. The material is also accessible to scientists, engineers, and technologists working in the fields of computer science, biology, chemistry, engineering, and nanotechnology.

Introduction to Optical and Optoelectronic Properties of Nanostructures

These trends make it clear why understanding the fundamentals of the optics and
optoelectronics of nanostructures is of ... books: Quantum Mechanics for
Nanostructures, V. Mitin, D. Sementsov, and N. Vagidov, Cambridge University
Press, ...

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Author: Vladimir V. Mitin

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108428149

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 691

A rigorous guide providing a unified, multidisciplinary treatment of the fundamentals of optical and optoelectronic nanostructures.

Semiconductor Nanostructures

This introduction to the physics of semiconductor nanostructures and their transport properties emphasizes five fundamental transport phenomena: quantized conductance, tunnelling transport, the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the quantum Hall effect ...

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Author: Thomas Ihn

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199534425

Category: Science

Page: 552

View: 701

This introduction to the physics of semiconductor nanostructures and their transport properties emphasizes five fundamental transport phenomena: quantized conductance, tunnelling transport, the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the quantum Hall effect and the Coulomb blockade effect.

Quantum Chemistry of Solids

In the second edition two new chapters are added in the application part II of the book.

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Author: Robert A. Evarestov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642303562

Category: Science

Page: 734

View: 325

Quantum Chemistry of Solids delivers a comprehensive account of the main features and possibilities of LCAO methods for the first principles calculations of electronic structure of periodic systems. The first part describes the basic theory underlying the LCAO methods applied to periodic systems and the use of Hartree-Fock(HF), Density Function theory(DFT) and hybrid Hamiltonians. The translation and site symmetry consideration is included to establish connection between k-space solid –state physics and real-space quantum chemistry. The inclusion of electron correlation effects for periodic systems is considered on the basis of localized crystalline orbitals. The possibilities of LCAO methods for chemical bonding analysis in periodic systems are discussed. The second part deals with the applications of LCAO methods for calculations of bulk crystal properties, including magnetic ordering and crystal structure optimization. In the second edition two new chapters are added in the application part II of the book. Chapter 12 deals with the recent LCAO calculations and illustrates the efficiency of the scalar-relativistic LCAO method for solids, containing heavy atoms. Chapter 13 deals with the symmetry properties and the recent applications of LCAO method to inorganic nanotubes. New material is added to chapter 9 devoted to LCAO calculations of perfect-crystal properties. The possibilities of LCAO method for calculation of the high-frequency dielectric constants of crystals and the description of phase transitions in solids are discussed. The efficiency of LCAO method in the quantum-mechanics-molecular dynamics approach to the interpretation of x-ray absorption and EXAFS spectra is illustrated. A new section is devoted to recent LCAO calculations of electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties of tungstates MeWO4 (Me: Fe,Co,Ni,Cu,Zn,Cd).

Transport in Nanostructures

A comprehensive, detailed description of the properties and behaviour of mesoscopic devices.

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Author: David Ferry

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521663652

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 214

A comprehensive, detailed description of the properties and behaviour of mesoscopic devices.

Introduction to Nanoscience

It is all of them, and it is time for a text that integrates the disciplines. This is such a text, aimed at advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in the sciences.

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Author: Stuart Lindsay

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191609275

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 480

View: 574

Nanoscience is not physics, chemistry, engineering or biology. It is all of them, and it is time for a text that integrates the disciplines. This is such a text, aimed at advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in the sciences. The consequences of smallness and quantum behaviour are well known and described Richard Feynman's visionary essay 'There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom' (which is reproduced in this book). Another, critical, but thus far neglected, aspect of nanoscience is the complexity of nanostructures. Hundreds, thousands or hundreds of thousands of atoms make up systems that are complex enough to show what is fashionably called 'emergent behaviour'. Quite new phenomena arise from rare configurations of the system. Examples are the Kramer's theory of reactions (Chapter 3), the Marcus theory of electron transfer (Chapter 8), and enzyme catalysis, molecular motors, and fluctuations in gene expression and splicing, all covered in the final Chapter on Nanobiology. The book is divided into three parts. Part I (The Basics) is a self-contained introduction to quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics and chemical kinetics, calling on no more than basic college calculus. A conceptual approach and an array of examples and conceptual problems will allow even those without the mathematical tools to grasp much of what is important. Part II (The Tools) covers microscopy, single molecule manipulation and measurement, nanofabrication and self-assembly. Part III (Applications) covers electrons in nanostructures, molecular electronics, nano-materials and nanobiology. Each chapter starts with a survey of the required basics, but ends by making contact with current research literature.

Exotic States in Quantum Nanostructures

Chapter 1 TRANSPORT IN SINGLE CHANNEL QUANTUM WIRES Hermann
Grabert Fakultät für Physik Albert - Ludwigs ... These parts of the article should be
readily accessible to students with a background in quantum mechanics
including ...

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Author: Sarben Sarkar

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402010303

Category: Science

Page: 314

View: 938

Mesoscopic physics has made great strides in the last few years. It is an area of research that is attractive to many graduate students of theoretical condensed matter physics. The techniques that are needed to understand it go beyond the conventional perturbative approaches that still form the bulk of the graduate lectures that are given to students. Even when the non-perturbative techniques are presented, they often are presented within an abstract context. It is important to have lectures given by experts in the field, which present both theory and experiment in an illuminating and inspiring way, so that the impact of new methodology on novel physics is clear. It is an apt time to have such a volume since the field has reached a level of maturity. The pedagogical nature of the articles and the variety of topics makes it an important resource for newcomers to the field. The topics range from the newly emerging area of quantum computers and quantum information using Josephson junctions to the formal mathematical methods of conformal field theory which are applied to the understanding of Luttinger liquids. Electrons which interact strongly can give rise to non-trivial ground states such as superconductivity, quantum Hall states and magnetism. Both their theory and application are discussed in a pedagogical way for quantum information in mesoscopic superconducting devices, skyrmions and magnetism in two dimensional electron gases, transport in quantum wires, metal-insulator transitions and spin electronics.

Advanced Physics of Electron Transport in Semiconductors and Nanostructures

Hence, this book discusses those sub-topics which are required to deal with electronic transport in a single, self-contained course.

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Author: Massimo V. Fischetti

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319011011

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 474

View: 883

This textbook is aimed at second-year graduate students in Physics, Electrical Engineering, or Materials Science. It presents a rigorous introduction to electronic transport in solids, especially at the nanometer scale.Understanding electronic transport in solids requires some basic knowledge of Hamiltonian Classical Mechanics, Quantum Mechanics, Condensed Matter Theory, and Statistical Mechanics. Hence, this book discusses those sub-topics which are required to deal with electronic transport in a single, self-contained course. This will be useful for students who intend to work in academia or the nano/ micro-electronics industry.Further topics covered include: the theory of energy bands in crystals, of second quantization and elementary excitations in solids, of the dielectric properties of semiconductors with an emphasis on dielectric screening and coupled interfacial modes, of electron scattering with phonons, plasmons, electrons and photons, of the derivation of transport equations in semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures somewhat at the quantum level, but mainly at the semi-classical level. The text presents examples relevant to current research, thus not only about Si, but also about III-V compound semiconductors, nanowires, graphene and graphene nanoribbons. In particular, the text gives major emphasis to plane-wave methods applied to the electronic structure of solids, both DFT and empirical pseudopotentials, always paying attention to their effects on electronic transport and its numerical treatment. The core of the text is electronic transport, with ample discussions of the transport equations derived both in the quantum picture (the Liouville-von Neumann equation) and semi-classically (the Boltzmann transport equation, BTE). An advanced chapter, Chapter 18, is strictly related to the ‘tricky’ transition from the time-reversible Liouville-von Neumann equation to the time-irreversible Green’s functions, to the density-matrix formalism and, classically, to the Boltzmann transport equation. Finally, several methods for solving the BTE are also reviewed, including the method of moments, iterative methods, direct matrix inversion, Cellular Automata and Monte Carlo. Four appendices complete the text.

Dynamical Symmetries for Nanostructures

Group theoretical concepts elucidate fundamental physical phenomena, including excitation spectra of quantum systems and complex geometrical structures such as molecules and crystals.

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Author: Konstantin Kikoin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783211997246

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 351

View: 386

Group theoretical concepts elucidate fundamental physical phenomena, including excitation spectra of quantum systems and complex geometrical structures such as molecules and crystals. These concepts are extensively covered in numerous textbooks. The aim of the present monograph is to illuminate more subtle aspects featuring group theory for quantum mechanics, that is, the concept of dynamical symmetry. Dynamical symmetry groups complement the conventional groups: their elements induce transitions between states belonging to different representations of the symmetry group of the Hamiltonian. Dynamical symmetry appears as a hidden symmetry in the hydrogen atom and quantum rotator problem, but its main role is manifested in nano and meso systems. Such systems include atomic clusters, large molecules, quantum dots attached to metallic electrodes, etc. They are expected to be the building blocks of future quantum electronic devices and information transmitting algorithms. Elucidation of the electronic properties of such systems is greatly facilitated by applying concepts of dynamical group theory.

Phonons in Nanostructures

This book focuses on the theory of phonon interactions in nanoscale structures with particular emphasis on modern electronic and optoelectronic devices.

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Author: Michael A. Stroscio

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139430327

Category: Science

Page: 274

View: 975

This book focuses on the theory of phonon interactions in nanoscale structures with particular emphasis on modern electronic and optoelectronic devices. The continuing progress in the fabrication of semiconductor nanostructures with lower dimensional features has led to devices with enhanced functionality and even novel devices with new operating principles. The critical role of phonon effects in such semiconductor devices is well known. There is therefore a great need for a greater awareness and understanding of confined phonon effects. A key goal of this book is to describe tractable models of confined phonons and how these are applied to calculations of basic properties and phenomena of semiconductor heterostructures. The level of presentation is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students in physics and engineering with some background in quantum mechanics and solid state physics or devices. A basic understanding of electromagnetism and classical acoustics is assumed.

Optical Generation and Control of Quantum Coherence in Semiconductor Nanostructures

Special attention is given to the optical control of spin coherence. These front edge research topics are presented in the form of review articles by leading scientists.

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Author: Gabriela Slavcheva

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642124914

Category: Science

Page: 338

View: 725

The fundamental concept of quantum coherence plays a central role in quantum physics, cutting across disciplines of quantum optics, atomic and condensed matter physics. Quantum coherence represents a universal property of the quantum s- tems that applies both to light and matter thereby tying together materials and p- nomena. Moreover, the optical coherence can be transferred to the medium through the light-matter interactions. Since the early days of quantum mechanics there has been a desire to control dynamics of quantum systems. The generation and c- trol of quantum coherence in matter by optical means, in particular, represents a viable way to achieve this longstanding goal and semiconductor nanostructures are the most promising candidates for controllable quantum systems. Optical generation and control of coherent light-matter states in semiconductor quantum nanostructures is precisely the scope of the present book. Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the subject of quantum coh- ence. We are currently witnessing parallel growth of activities in different physical systems that are all built around the central concept of manipulation of quantum coherence. The burgeoning activities in solid-state systems, and semiconductors in particular, have been strongly driven by the unprecedented control of coherence that previously has been demonstrated in quantum optics of atoms and molecules, and is now taking advantage of the remarkable advances in semiconductor fabrication technologies. A recent impetus to exploit the coherent quantum phenomena comes from the emergence of the quantum information paradigm.

Nanostructure Physics of a Quantum Well adjacent to a tunnel barrier

The book contains necessary background on Quantum Mechanics, Microelectronics and Nanostructure Physics to enable readers assimilate the book completely.

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Author: Dr Sujaul Chowdhury

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783656658665

Category: Science

Page: 99

View: 399

Master's Thesis from the year 2014 in the subject Physics - Quantum Physics, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology (Department of Physics), course: Nanostructure Physics, language: English, abstract: We have investigated Nanostructure Physics of a Quantum Well (QW) adjacent to a tunnel barrier. On the other side of the QW, we have a barrier layer of semi-infinite thickness. The book contains thorough and complete analytical calculations leading to two transcendental equations obeyed by quasi-bound energy levels of the QW. The book also contains numerical investigation of parametric variations of the quasi-bound energy levels. The variations are quite unexpected. For some values of tunnel barrier width and height, each quasi-bound energy level yields two allowed energy levels. The two equations reduce to those for isolated QW in proper limiting values of parameters. The book contains necessary background on Quantum Mechanics, Microelectronics and Nanostructure Physics to enable readers assimilate the book completely.