Regional Organizations in African Security

At the same time that warfare is changing, so has the state’s capacity to provide security and political stability to its citizens. This book deals with the role of regional organizations in Africa’s security.

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Author: Fredrik Soderbaum

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317985778

Category: History

Page: 154

View: 193

The African continent is plagued by some of the most brutal and violent conflicts in the world. At the same time that warfare is changing, so has the state’s capacity to provide security and political stability to its citizens. This book deals with the role of regional organizations in Africa’s security. It focuses on three basic—yet often overlooked—questions: (1) the advantages and disadvantages of African regional and sub-regional organizations vis-à-vis other security mechanisms, (2) the official and unofficial reasons to intervene, and (3) whether security is actually protected by the peace activities carried out by the regional organizations. The contributors to the book—all leading researchers in the field—systematically assess and compare the role of the African Union (AU), the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). This book was based on a special issue of African Security.

Regional Security

Despite suffering from important discrepancies in both their mandates and capacities, regional organizations have become indisputable actors that play a role from the outbreak of a crisis to the reconstruction efforts in the aftermath of a ...

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Author: Rodrigo Tavares

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135257750

Category: Political Science

Page: 206

View: 481

Regional organizations are an inescapable feature of global politics. Virtually all countries in the world are members of at least one regional or other intergovernmental organization. The involvement of international organizations in the realm of regional peace and security, and their cooperation in this domain with the United Nations, has reached an unprecedented level. Regional organizations have traditionally been formed around economic, political, or environmental objectives, however, over the last decades these organizations have gradually penetrated into the security sphere and developed their capacities in conflict prevention, peacekeeping, or post-war reconstruction. In Europe, Africa, Asia, or the Americas, regional and other intergovernmental organizations have been concurrently empowered by the UN and their own member states to maintain peace and security. Despite suffering from important discrepancies in both their mandates and capacities, regional organizations have become indisputable actors that play a role from the outbreak of a crisis to the reconstruction efforts in the aftermath of a conflict Presenting the most up-to-date critical and comparative analysis of the major regional security institutions, assessing a wide range of regional organizations and providing an accessible and comprehensive guide to 11 key organizations, this book is the first systematic study of the capacities of the most recognized intergovernmental organizations with a security mandate. Regional Security is essential reading for all students of international organizations, peace and security studies and global governance.

The Security Governance of Regional Organizations

This collection contributes to the ongoing reconceptualization of security and definition of security governance, and explores whether regional security governance processes are unique or similar and whether some organizational experiences ...

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Author: Emil J. Kirchner

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136645044

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

View: 870

The Security Governance of Regional Organizations assesses the effectiveness of regional organizations as regional or global security providers, and examines how policy preferences, resources, capabilities, institutional mechanisms and economic and political cohesion link with collective action behaviour in four security policy functions. It investigates how regional organizations meet the new security threats or respond to strategic geopolitical changes and what adaptations they make in the process. Divided into three parts and using a common analytical framework, the book explains the changing security agenda in ten key regional organizations, each organizational chapter: identifies the nature of threats within the region examines the historical development and the degree of institutionalization assesses the level of governance explores the context of interaction investigates the compliance with the norms of the system of governance. This collection contributes to the ongoing reconceptualization of security and definition of security governance, and explores whether regional security governance processes are unique or similar and whether some organizational experiences can be seen as models for others to follow. It combines a coherent theoretical framework with strong comparative case studies, making it ideal reading for all students of security studies.

Spatializing Practices of Regional Organizations during Conflict Intervention

This book studies relevant actors and practices of conflict intervention by African regional organizations and their intimate connection to space-making, addressing a major gap regarding what actually happens within and around these ...

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Author: Jens Herpolsheimer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000364217

Category: Political Science

Page: 226

View: 264

This book studies relevant actors and practices of conflict intervention by African regional organizations and their intimate connection to space-making, addressing a major gap regarding what actually happens within and around these organizations. Based on extensive empirical research, it argues that those intervention practices are essentially spatializing practices, based on particular spatial imaginations, contributing to the continuous construction and formatting of regional spaces as well as to ordering relations between different regional spaces. Analyzing the field of developing practices of conflict intervention by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the African Union (AU), the book contributes a new theory-oriented analytical approach to study African regional organizations (ROs) and the complex dynamics of African peace and security, based on insights from Critical Geography. As such, it helps to close an empirical gap with regard to the ‘internal’ modes of operation of African ROs as well as the lack of their theorization. It demonstrates that, contrary to most accounts, intervention practices of African ROs have been diverse and complexly interrelated, involving different actors within and around these organizations, and are essentially tied to the space-making. This book will be of key interest to students and scholars of African Politics, Governance, Peace and Security Studies, International or Regional Organizations and more broadly to Comparative Regionalism, International Relations and International Studies.

Regional Organisations and Security

This book aims to examine the conceptions and practices of security adopted by Regional Organisations (ROs) across the globe.

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Author: Stephen Aris

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134118656

Category: Political Science

Page: 296

View: 997

This book aims to examine the conceptions and practices of security adopted by Regional Organisations (ROs) across the globe. Since the end of the Cold War, there has been an increased focus on regions as a relevant realm for security, with actors within regional contexts identifying a significant degree of interdependency between one another. As a consequence, international security has taken on a distinct regionally institutionalised character, as seen by the increase in calls for greater utilisation of ‘Chapter VIII: Regional Arrangements’ of the UN, in order to create a devolved UN-led system of global security management. However, the idea of a system of global security management is a remote prospect, because divergence seems to be as important as commonality in terms of regional security. In light of the above, Regional Organisations and Security analyses the primary ROs that are active in Africa, Asia, Eurasia, the Middle East and South America. The findings of individual case studies are compiled to highlight disparities and similarities in how security is seen, prioritised, understood, practised, managed and implemented across regions. On this basis, the authors reach conclusions about whether we live in an increasingly globalised or regionally distinct world, and go on to assess the prospects for a globalised system of security management and consider how this might be developed and organised. This book will be of interest to students of comparative regionalism, international organisations, international security and IR.

Regional Organisations and the Development of Collective Security

This book examines the development of collective security by regional organisations particularly after the Cold War.

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Author: Ademola Abass

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781847310002

Category: Law

Page: 272

View: 209

This book examines the development of collective security by regional organisations particularly after the Cold War. It analyses the various constitutional developments that have occurred within regional arrangements such as ECOWAS, African Union, SADC, OAS, and NATO and critically analyses how these developments have propelled regional organisations to depart from the normative framework of regional arrangement contained in Chapter VIII of the UN Charter. Through a comprehensive examination of practice, the book evaluates the impact of regional organisations' newly asserted powers to authorise enforcement action and determine when situations within member states warrant their intervention. It inquires into the legal justifications for these developments both from within the UN Charter and regional treaties and practice and asks whether consensual intervention, that is the use of force by regional organisations on the basis of their members' consent, contravenes or constitutes an exception to the prohibition of the use or threat of force under Article 2(4) of the Charter. The book also analyses the regime of complementarity between the UN and regional organisations.

Building African Security and Partnership Through Africa s Regional Organizations

"In 2002, the African Union (AU) was created with the aim of strengthening integration among member States and the voice of the African continent in global affairs.

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Author: Richard W. Jokinen

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:840106786

Category: Africa

Page: 47

View: 107

"In 2002, the African Union (AU) was created with the aim of strengthening integration among member States and the voice of the African continent in global affairs. The African heads of state recognized the Organization of African Unity (OAU) framework was no longer adequate to meet the needs for greater continental policy coordination, stronger economic growth, and growing security challenges. By 2007, the United States responded with the creation of US Africa Command to be the Department of Defense (DOD) focal point for the coordination and execution of civil-military operations. This in itself is not sufficient to engage in the African theater."--Abstract.

The Finances of Regional Organisations in the Global South

This book addresses a major gap in the longstanding research on regional organisations: how do their finances work and what do they reveal about the region-building process?

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Author: Ulf Engel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780429618901

Category: Political Science

Page: 268

View: 124

This book addresses a major gap in the longstanding research on regional organisations: how do their finances work and what do they reveal about the region-building process? It brings together an empirically rich collection of chapters written by experts of regional organisations in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Based on the insights on thirteen regional organisations as well as two chapters dedicated to the influence of external funders, the editors develop typologies to cluster regional organisations according to their financial characteristics: the size of budgets, the sources of funding and the criteria to calculate contributions. Through analysing the process of budgeting and resourcing, the book sheds light on the different nature and functioning of these organisations existing outside of the Global North and puts a specific emphasis on regional organisations in the area of security in Africa and the Global South. It provides explanations to why members pay or do not pay and how budgeting works, and it deals with data availability, the role of donors, overlapping regionalism, cultural transfers between regional organisations and the impact on regional actorness. This volume will be of key interest to scholars and students of African studies and politics, the Global South, the finances of international organisations, comparative regionalism, international political economy and international relations.

Legitimacy Peace Operations and Global regional Security

"This book focuses on the collaboration that takes place in the field of conflict management between the global centre and the African regional level.

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Author: Linnéa Gelot

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780415526531

Category: Political Science

Page: 179

View: 940

"This book focuses on the collaboration that takes place in the field of conflict management between the global centre and the African regional level. It moves beyond the dominant framework on regional-global security partnerships, which mainly considers one-sided legal and political factors. Instead, new perspectives on the relationships are presented through the lens of international legitimacy. The book argues that the AU and the UN Security Council fight for legitimacy to ensure their positions of authority and to improve the chances of success of their activities. It demonstrates in regard to the case of Darfur why and how legitimacy matters for states, international organisations, and also for global actors and local populations." -- Page [iii] of paperback version.

African peace

The role of regions in the international order, particularly the African region, has been under-theorized and under-acknowledged, and this book adds to an emerging literature that explores the role of regional organizations in the Global ...

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Author: Kathryn Nash

Publisher: Manchester University Press

ISBN: 9781526152800

Category: Political Science

Page: 232

View: 848

African regional organizations have played leading roles in constructing collective conflict management rules for the continent, but these rules or norms have not been static. Currently, the African Union (AU) deploys monitors, authorizes peace support operations, and actively engages to resolve internal conflicts. Just a few decades ago, these actions would have been deeply controversial under the Organization of African Unity (OAU). What changed to allow for this transformation in the way the African regional organization approaches peace and security? African peace examines why the OAU chose norms in 1963 that prioritized state security and led to a policy of strict non-interference - even in the face of destabilizing violence - and why the AU chose very different norms leading to a disparate conflict management policy in the early 2000s. Even if the AU’s capacity to respond to conflict is still developing, this new policy has made the region more willing and capable of responding to violence. Nash argues that norm creation largely happened within the African context, and international pressure was not a determinant factor in their evolution. The role of regions in the international order, particularly the African region, has been under-theorized and under-acknowledged, and this book adds to an emerging literature that explores the role of regional organizations in the Global South in creating and promoting norms based on their own experiences and for their own purposes.

Peace Maintenance in Africa

This book discusses the many legal aspects arising in relation to the maintenance of peace in Africa.

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Author: Giovanni Cellamare

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319722931

Category: Law

Page: 190

View: 683

This book discusses the many legal aspects arising in relation to the maintenance of peace in Africa. Over the past twenty years, the majority of peace operations have been deployed on this continent, most of them established by the UN Security Council, sometimes in cooperation with the African Union and other African regional organizations, with contributions from the European Union and NATO. In some cases, the African Union has invoked its ‘primary responsibility for promoting peace, security and stability in Africa’, thus questioning the legal partnership between UN and regional organizations provided for in Chapter VIII of the UN Charter. The peace operations deployed in Africa have sometimes received a very robust mandate, which also includes the use of force and the protection of civilians’ human rights. The implementation of this broad mandate, which goes well beyond the traditional ‘peacekeeping approach’, requires considerable human and economic resources. Moreover, it raises several issues of concern with regard to the impact on the economic and political systems of the states in which the operations are deployed and, more generally, on the exercise of sovereignty over their territorial communities by these states. Offering an update for lawyers in practice and in academia interested in the field of international law, the book also contributes to the theoretical studies concerning the activities of international organizations, focusing on one of the most challenging issues to emerge in recent times.

African Regional Organizations

Essays examine security, political, financial, and economic organizations in Africa, and discuss the problems and prospects of each group

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Author: Domenico Mazzeo

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521262460

Category: Law

Page: 265

View: 318

Essays examine security, political, financial, and economic organizations in Africa, and discuss the problems and prospects of each group

Reinventing Regional Security Institutions in Asia and Africa

The question is: why and how do these variances in institutional change emerge? This book explores the mechanisms of institutional change, focusing on regional security institutions led by non-great powers.

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Author: Kei Koga

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317229537

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 988

Regional security institutions play a significant role in shaping the behavior of existing and rising regional powers by nurturing security norms and rules, monitoring state activities, and sometimes imposing sanctions, thereby formulating the configuration of regional security dynamics. Yet, their security roles and influence do not remain constant. Their raison d’etre, objectives, and functions experience sporadic changes, and some institutions upgrade military functions for peacekeeping operations, while others limit their functions to political and security dialogues. The question is: why and how do these variances in institutional change emerge? This book explores the mechanisms of institutional change, focusing on regional security institutions led by non-great powers. It constructs a theoretical model for institutional change that provides a new understanding of their changing roles in regional security, which has yet to be fully explored in the International Relations field. In so doing, the book illuminates why, when, and how each organization restructures its role, function, and influence. Using case studies of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), and the Organization of African Unity (OAU)/ African Union (AU), it also sheds light on similarities and differences in institutional change between regional security institutions.

The Oxford Handbook of the Use of Force in International Law

This is matched by a final section considering new security challenges and the emerging law in relation to them. Finally, the key arguments developed in the book are tied together in a substantive conclusion.

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Author: Marc Weller

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191653919

Category: Law

Page: 1328

View: 119

The prohibition of the use of force in international law is one of the major achievements of international law in the past century. The attempt to outlaw war as a means of national policy and to establish a system of collective security after both World Wars resulted in the creation of the United Nations Charter, which remains a principal point of reference for the law on the use of force to this day. There have, however, been considerable challenges to the law on the prohibition ofThe prohibition of the use of force in international law is one of the major achievements of international law in the past century. The attempt to outlaw war as a means of national policy and to establish a system of collective security after both World Wars resulted in the creation of the United Nations Charter, which remains a principal point of reference for the law on the use of force to this day. There have, however, been considerable challenges to the law on the prohibition of the use of force over the past two decades. This Oxford Handbook is a comprehensive and authoritative study of the modern law on the use of force. Over seventy experts in the field offer a detailed analysis, and to an extent a restatement, of the law in this area. The Handbook reviews the status of the law on the use of force, and assesses what changes, if any, have occurred in consequence to recent developments. It offers cutting-edge and up-to-date scholarship on all major aspects of the prohibition of the use of force. The work is set in context by an extensive introductory section, reviewing the history of the subject, recent challenges, and addressing major conceptual approaches. Its second part addresses collective security, in particular the law and practice of the United Nations organs, and of regional organizations and arrangements. It then considers the substance of the prohibition of the use of force, and of the right to self-defence and associated doctrines. The next section is devoted to armed action undertaken on behalf of peoples and populations. This includes self-determination conflicts, resistance to armed occupation, and forcible humanitarian and pro-democratic action. The possibility of the revival of classical, expansive justifications for the use of force is then addressed. This is matched by a final section considering new security challenges and the emerging law in relation to them. Finally, the key arguments developed in the book are tied together in a substantive conclusion. The Handbook will be essential reading for scholars and students of international law and the use of force, and legal advisers to both government and NGOs.

Towards an African Peace and Security Regime

Complementary to the editors’ Africa’s New Peace and Security Architecture: Implementing norms, institutionalising solutions (Ashgate 2010), this volume revolves around three main areas of focus: the continental ’embeddedness’ of ...

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Author: João Gomes Porto

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317009061

Category: Political Science

Page: 276

View: 866

Towards an African Peace and Security Regime: Continental embeddedness, transnational linkages, strategic relevance provides an informed and critical reflection on the adequacy of the emerging African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) to the medium- and long-term challenges and opportunities of conflict prevention, management and resolution in Africa. Complementary to the editors’ Africa’s New Peace and Security Architecture: Implementing norms, institutionalising solutions (Ashgate 2010), this volume revolves around three main areas of focus: the continental ’embeddedness’ of norms, values and processes required for the gradual coming into shape of the African peace and security regime; its transnational linkages as well as the wider collective security environment; and the empirical analysis of the connections between the continental level and the regional economic communities with case-studies on ECOWAS, SADC and COMESA.

Africa and international organization

For these considerations, the present book resulting from the St.

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Author: Y. El-Ayouty

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401020503

Category: Law

Page: 262

View: 436

As an emerging Continent, with a rich past, dynamic present and promising future, Africa has an important role to play in the develop ment of international organization. Well before Africa Year, 1960, when several African States attained their independence and their rightful place in the community of nations, the various movements for unity and co-operation strove towards the creation of regional international organization. Now more than ever before, nearly two scores of African States, members of the United Nations, the Organization of African Unity and several other sub-regional organizations and arrangements, look upon international organization as an important means for safeguard ing their independence, enhancing African identity, forging collabor ative bonds amongst themselves and with the outside world, and rais ing the standard of living for their populations. It should also be noted that the age of science and technology which is, and should be, based on international co-operation, stimulates fur ther Africa's desire to strengthen and work through international inter governmental organizations. As Africa faces the I970's, confronting the core problems of colonial ism and apartheid in its southern parts, she looks upon the United Nations and the Organization of African Unity as the main vehicles for thought and action. For these considerations, the present book resulting from the St.

Reimagining Security Communities

Building upon the foundations of scholars such as Barry Buzan and Karl Deutsch, this volume (de) constructs the AU's emerging peace and security architecture, to promote African centered solutions to problems of conflict that transcend the ...

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Author: Francis Onditi

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030708696

Category: Africa

Page: 477

View: 467

"Conflicts in Africa, interstate wars, civil wars, and protracted social conflicts, have increasingly spilled over national borders to become regional conflicts. In response, the international community has offered regional solutions. But will these conflicts be regionally contained? Onditi and his co-authors have taken up the challenge of rethinking regional security communities from a holistic approach. Building upon the foundations of scholars such as Barry Buzan and Karl Deutsch, this volume (de) constructs the AU's emerging peace and security architecture, to promote African centered solutions to problems of conflict that transcend the legacy of post-colonial boundaries denoted by the 'Curse of Berlin.'" -- Douglas A. Yates, Professor of Political Science, American Graduate School in Paris, France "In a continent replete with a plethora of security challenges, the roles played by actors such as regional organizations in security community consolidation, enlargement and institutionalization are critical for Africa. This timely book is a masterpiece that broadens the epistemological debate on security communities and is a must for scholars, students and policy makers." -- Korwa Gombe Adar, Professor of International Studies, University of Botswana This book utilizes a systems thinking perspective to propose a holistic framework of analysis and practice for the regional security community ("RSC") arrangement in Africa. In responding to the challenge of improving effectiveness of response to peace and security threats, African states tend to rely on ad hoc mechanisms. However, this approach has been mired with a myriad of structural limitations. The holistic framework reconfigures the traditional "RSC" into a simplified tool kit of "resources", making this text book ideal for students and advanced researchers in international relations, and all those concerned with regional security and strategic studies. Francis Onditi heads the School of International Relations and Diplomacy, Riara University, Kenya. Gilad Ben-Nun is Senior Lecturer at Leipzig University's Research Centre Global Dynamics, Germany. Edmond M. Were is Associate Professor of Peace and Conflict Studies at Kisii University, Kenya. Israel Nyaburi Nyadera is a Teaching Assistant at the Department of Government and Public Administration at the University of Macau. .

Crafting an African Security Architecture

This book responds to new regional conflicts over health, water, land and food security in the world's poorest, most socially fragmented continent.

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Author: Hany Besada

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317158738

Category: Political Science

Page: 250

View: 320

The humanitarian crises caused by civil conflicts and wars in Africa are too great in scope for an adequate and effective continental response. The founding of the African Union and the drafting of the Responsibility to Protect doctrine, the basis for collective action against genocide, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity makes this a critical time to reflect on how best to address regional conflicts. This book responds to new regional conflicts over health, water, land and food security in the world's poorest, most socially fragmented continent. The work assesses African regional security arrangements and provides new policy recommendations for the future.