Rock Bone and Ruin

"The Earth's deep past is a fascinating place to visit, both disturbingly alien and hauntingly familiar.

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Author: Adrian Currie

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262037266

Category: Science

Page: 376

View: 916

"The Earth's deep past is a fascinating place to visit, both disturbingly alien and hauntingly familiar. In its life, the Earth has frozen solid, supported enormous animals (themselves sporting enormous fleas!), accommodated a diversity of cultures, and a diversity of ways-of-living. Rock, Bone & Ruin asks how much we can know about the deep past. To answer this, we need to understand the resources at our disposal: how do historical scientists like paleontologists, archaeologists and geologists learn about prehistory? Most people think of simple relationships--such as that between a fossilized bone and its long-dead owner--when they consider historical evidence. However, I argue that such scientists are best understood as 'methodological omnivores': they are creative, opportunistic and use a variety of different strategies and techniques. The reasoning used by historical scientists is much more diverse and complex than we have previously realized. And this supports optimism about our capacity to discover the deep past: our knowledge of it shall continue to grow. Along the way, we critically examine philosophical and scientific reflection on the relationship between the past and the present, the nature of evidence, contingency, scientific progress and scientific. Further, I provide suggestions about the value of knowledge about the past--including how it can inform us in the present and into the future--and how such sciences are best supported. The argument draws on fascinating examples from across paleontology, geology and archaeology"--

Rock Bone Ruin

I examine historical science, building a picture of its epistemic and explanatory credentials. These are, first, explanations of sauropod gigantism.

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Author: Adrian Currie

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:953338294

Category: Convergence (Biology)

Page: 516

View: 531

We should be optimistic about historical science's capacity to uncover past events, even those leaving little trace. Moreover, historical science does more than describe or catalogue the past. In uncovering patterns and weaving narratives, historical scientists provide explanations: why history unfolded as it did, and how it could have been otherwise. These claims are related: the historical scientist's drive for explanation increases her reach into the past, as speculative hypotheses provide avenues for fresh tests and linking past events together. I examine historical science, building a picture of its epistemic and explanatory credentials. These are, first, explanations of sauropod gigantism. Sauropods were one of the most successful lineages of the Mesozoic, comfortably outdoing all terrestrial animals in size. How did this evolve and how was it possible physiologically? Second, the 'snowball earth' explanation of Neoproterozoic deposits. Rocks formed over 500 million years ago show distinctive glacial signs, but formed in the tropics. By the snowball earth hypothesis the entire earth was ice-locked for brief periods. We might be pessimistic about finding answers to these questions. Although access to past events is granted by their downstream effects, 'traces', these signals decay over time. Historical scientists frequently face incomplete, 'gappy', and 'faint', difficult to access data-sets. Moreover, we sometimes lack manipulative access to these events, so traditional experimental investigation is unavailable. However such data-sets are also 'dispersed', heterogeneous, allowing us to draw on and knit together multiple lines of evidence. Moreover, there are evidential sources which are independent of signal decay. I describe two sources. First, 'surrogative' evidence. This evidence accesses the past by (1) supporting 'midrange' theory (background theory which links traces to past events); (2) supporting general models of causal systems, the dynamics of past events; (3) testing between hypotheses about the past. Second, explanatory relations can be evidential. Some explanations of past events are 'interdependent': the occurrence of one event makes another more likely, and vice versa. Other explanations of the past cite 'common processes': events are unified as instances of the same process-type, and provide evidential support in virtue of this. Moreover, historical science is not 'parochial', or merely concerned about, or restricted to, particular histories. I demonstrate that historical scientists are frequently interested in understanding 'fragile systems': relatively contingent systems which occur under specific circumstances but, nonetheless, support counterfactuals. Even when they are interested in explaining particular events, historical scientists draw on evidence from other instance types. These considerations ground optimism about historical science, but they are also revelatory of broader issues in the philosophy of science. I discuss how some historical explanations, in particular those which describe complex narratives about particular cases, come apart from 'systems-based' or 'mechanistic' explanation. I also demonstrate that the use of models, particularly simulations, in historical science has a far more epistemic character than contemporary treatments of modelling suggest. As opposed to using models to maximize predictive power, explanatory salience, or for heuristic traction, historical scientists use models to compensate for minimal data and to empirically differentiate between hypotheses.

Deep Time Reckoning

Adrian Currie , Rock , Bone , and Ruin : An Optimist's Guide to the Historical
Sciences ( Cambridge , MA : MIT Press , 2018 ) , 13 . 2. Currie , Rock , Bone , and
Ruin , 15 . 3. T. Hjerpe , A. T. K. Ikonen , and R. Broed , “ Biosphere Assessment ...

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Author: Vincent Ialenti

Publisher:

ISBN: 9780262539265

Category: Environmental policy

Page: 208

View: 921

"How Finland's nuclear waste experts discern far future Earths, and what the rest of us non-Finns and non-experts can learn from them"--

Contingency and Convergence

See, for instance, A. M. Currie, Rock, Bone & Ruin: An Optimist's Guide to the
Historical Sciences (MIT Press, 2018). 28. T. Lingham-Soliar, “Convergence in
Thunniform Anatomy in Lamnid Sharks and Jurassic Ichthyosaurs,” Integrative
and ...

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Author: Russell Powell

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262043397

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 534

Can we can use the patterns and processes of convergent evolution to make inferences about universal laws of life, on Earth and elsewhere? In this book, Russell Powell investigates whether we can use the patterns and processes of convergent evolution to make inferences about universal laws of life, on Earth and elsewhere. Weaving together disparate philosophical and empirical threads, Powell offers the first detailed analysis of the interplay between contingency and convergence in macroevolution, as it relates to both complex life in general and cognitively complex life in particular. If the evolution of mind is not a historical accident, the product of convergence rather than contingency, then, Powell asks, is mind likely to be an evolutionarily important feature of any living world? Stephen Jay Gould argued for the primacy of contingency in evolution. Gould's “radical contingency thesis” (RCT) has been challenged, but critics have largely failed to engage with its core claims and theoretical commitments. Powell fills this gap. He first examines convergent regularities at both temporal and phylogenetic depths, finding evidence that both vindicates and rebuffs Gould's argument for contingency. Powell follows this partial defense of the RCT with a substantive critique. Among the evolutionary outcomes that might defy the RCT, he argues, cognition is particularly important—not only for human-specific issues of the evolution of intelligence and consciousness but also for the large-scale ecological organization of macroscopic living worlds. Turning his attention to complex cognitive life, Powell considers what patterns of cognitive convergence tell us about the nature of mind, its evolution, and its place in the universe. If complex bodies are common in the universe, might complex minds be common as well?

Rock Ruin Or The Daughter of the Island

... neglect of his work , had begun to shut teeth , and clenching the handle of his
knife mark à life hitherto exemplary and almost pa- fiercely . “ If I thought he had
said such things triarchal in its simplicity . I would break every bone in his body ! "
.

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Author: Ann Sophia Stephens

Publisher:

ISBN: UCAL:B3549849

Category: Dime novels

Page: 64

View: 143

Rock Ruin or the Daughter of the Island

If I thought he had said such things , I would break After a time , and with much
effort , for his limbs were every bone in his body ! ' ' stiff and swollen , he ... of bed
. in his way . " He could hardly walk , but he crept slowly towards * 24 ROCK
RUIN .

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Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: BL:A0017520337

Category:

Page:

View: 949

Archeological Research Series

R : Outer ring constant over significant portion of circumference . appendix
References , Tables , Maps. BONE bones . They were collected on the ... single
ruin , Site 1302 , a cliff house in Rock Canyon . ... Site 1493 , a small cave in Rock
Springs Canyon , produced Chapin Gray pottery and the bighorn bones . One of
the ...

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Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015008782545

Category: Indians of North America

Page:

View: 963

The Ruin Islanders

... Punuk house ruin 3 on the Miyowagh site was rectangular in shape with walls
of horizontal timbers and whale bones ... at the Western Thule - affiliated Ahteut
site in the Kobuk region , another composite house ruin ( 3N ) had a rock - lined ...

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Author: Karen Margrethe McCullough

Publisher: Hull, Que. : Canadian Museum of Civilization

ISBN: STANFORD:36105035121446

Category: History

Page: 347

View: 334

Study draws on data from archaeological research in the Bache Peninsula region of eastern Ellesmere Island to clarify and extend knowledge of the Ruin Island phase of Thule culture and the question of Thule culture expansion into the Canadian High Arctic. Detailed discussion of Thule material culture.

The Archaeologist

They are made of dark gray volcanic rock , which occurs in great abundance in
Millard and other counties of southern and central Utah . ... Bone skewers in
considerable numbers and arrow points were also found in every house ruin .
More or ...

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Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: CORNELL:31924103125070

Category: America

Page:

View: 782

Early Pueblo Ruins in the Piedra District Southwestern Colorado

CHIMNEY Rock RUIN , position DEPRESSIONSof . - - - - - - - - - - - CHISELS , of
bone . - - - - - 146 position of . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - suggestive of great kivas .
CHRONOLOGYof the Pueblos - 4 – 8 used as dance plazas . - - 21 , 33 , 70
relation of ...

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Author: Frank Harold Hanna Roberts

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015028547282

Category: Colorado

Page: 190

View: 333

Discusses the manufacture and sale of crack, explains the dangers of crack use and addiction, and describes efforts to treat addicts and end the crack trade.

Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution

I have not seen an ax of the same material from any pueblo ruin , but the majority
of stone implements are of harder rock . ... stone which was found , but several
specimens of incrusted shell , wood , and bone were taken from the Chevlon ruin
.

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Author: Smithsonian Institution. Board of Regents

Publisher:

ISBN: HARVARD:32044041851809

Category: Discoveries in science

Page:

View: 443

Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution

I have not seen an ax of the same material from any pueblo ruin , but the majority
of stone implements are of harder rock . ... stone which was found , but several
specimens of incrusted shell , wood , and bone were taken from the Chevlon ruin
.

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Author: Smithsonian Institution

Publisher:

ISBN: CHI:098103020

Category: Science

Page:

View: 505

The Road to Ruin

Look out for slippery surfaces , although they may look dry , Slippery rocks can
break a bone , this no one can deny . Climbing or walking upon rock is normally
quite high above , To do these dangerous walks , one has to be quite tough .

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Author: Karl-Werner Antrack

Publisher: Upfront Publishing

ISBN: IND:30000100641566

Category: Political Science

Page: 158

View: 988

'The Road to Ruin' is the latest book from Karl-Werner Antrack. It follows his views on the political system in Zimbabwe under the control of Robert Mugabe, and how this regime has been one of hatred and prejudice, rather than addressing the issues that were once brought about by apartheid.Antrack muses over the sad situation that has clouded the glory of black citizens achieving their right to vote, and who now find their country under a virtual dictatorship.'The Road to Ruin' is one man's opinion on a country that has touched his heart, yet left an ache in regards to the direction he foresees it taking and the great potential that would be tragically lost.

Table Rock Pueblo Arizona

Nevertheless they are abundant in the south , particularly in ruins occupied
during the later prehistoric periods such as the Swarts Ruin ... Bone tools were
relatively abundant from the Table Rock Site as compared with Vernon , Site 30 .
Bone ...

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Author: Paul Sidney Martin

Publisher:

ISBN: WISC:89058383852

Category: Arizona

Page: 168

View: 381

Early Desert Farming and Irrigation Settlements Dutch Canal ruin

... those artifact classes plus one of any other category of artifacts such as
nonhuman bone , shell , mineral , or vegetal material . pit house A structure ...
evidence of in situ burning on the pit edges . pit with rock A pit feature that
contains rock .

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Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: WISC:89058383563

Category: Dutch Canal Ruin (Ariz.)

Page:

View: 530

eyit Kin a Small House Ruin Chaco Canyon New Mexico

To remedy this , numerous large rocks found in refuse and dirt along east side of
this wall , may have been packed in as ... 7-1 bone awl fragment 48 Bc26-14 / 7-1
pottery pipe fragment 64 * mano fragment 65 * stone disc fragment 66 * mano ...

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Author: Bertha Pauline Dutton

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015068197907

Category: Chaco Canyon (N.M.)

Page: 101

View: 863

Scientific American

Beside the rock was an unshaped hammer stone which bore evidence of much
use . My conclusions were that the bones had been broken for their marrow .
Quite a number of fine bone and stone implements were secured from the ruin
and ...

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Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: WISC:89058437690

Category: Science

Page:

View: 204

Archaeological Excavations at Scorpion Ridge Ruin

Burial : a , rock cairn overlying inhumation ; b , semi - flexed individual after initial
exposure ; c , lower portion of skeleton showing broken bowl over right lower arm
bones ; d , upper portion of skeleton showing position of bone hair pin .

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Author: Ric Windmiller

Publisher:

ISBN: UCR:31210014321648

Category: Arizona

Page: 80

View: 536