Situation Awareness Analysis and Measurement

A comprehensive overview of different approaches to the measurement of situation awareness in experimental and applied setting, this book directly tackles the problem of ensuring that system designs and training programs are effective at ...

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Author: Mica R. Endsley

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781410605306

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 408

View: 703

A comprehensive overview of different approaches to the measurement of situation awareness in experimental and applied setting, this book directly tackles the problem of ensuring that system designs and training programs are effective at promoting situation awareness. It is the first book to provide a all-inclusive coverage of situation awareness and its measurement. Topics addressed provide a detailed analysis of the use of a wide variety of techniques for measuring situation awareness and situation assessment processes. It provides a rich resource for engineers and human factors psychologists involved in designing and evaluating systems in many domains.

Distributed Situation Awareness

This book focuses on the recently developed concept of distributed situation awareness, which takes a systems perspective on the concept and moves the focus on situation awareness out of the heads of individual operators and on to the ...

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Author: Paul M. Salmon

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781317149378

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 266

View: 795

Having an accurate understanding of what is going on is a key commodity for teams working within military systems. 'Situation awareness' (SA) is the term that is used within human factors circles to describe the level of awareness that operators have of the situation that they are engaged in; it focuses on how operators develop and maintain a sufficient understanding of 'what is going on' in order to achieve success in task performance. Over the past two decades, the construct has become a fundamental theme within the areas of system design and evaluation and has received considerable attention from the human factors research community. Despite this, there is still considerable debate over how SA operates in complex collaborative systems and how SA achievement and maintenance is best supported through system, procedure and interface design. This book focuses on the recently developed concept of distributed situation awareness, which takes a systems perspective on the concept and moves the focus on situation awareness out of the heads of individual operators and on to the overall joint cognitive system consisting of human and technological agents. Situation awareness is viewed as an emergent property of collaborative systems, something that resides in the interaction between elements of the system and not in the heads of individual operators working in that system. The first part of the book presents a comprehensive review and critique of existing SA theory and measurement approaches, following which a novel model for complex collaborative systems, the distributed SA model, and a new modelling procedure, the propositional network approach, are outlined and demonstrated. The next part focuses on real-world applications of the model and modelling procedure, and presents four case studies undertaken in the land warfare, multinational warfare and energy distribution domains. Each case study is described in terms of the domain in question, the methodology employed, and the findings derived in relation to situation awareness theory. The third and final part of the book then concentrates on theoretical development, and uses the academic literature and the findings from the case study applications to validate and extend the distributed SA model described at the beginning of the book. In closing, the utility of the distributed SA model and modeling procedure are outlined and a series of initial guidelines for supporting distributed SA through system design are articulated.

Human Performance Workload and Situational Awareness Measures Handbook Third Edition 2 Volume Set

This two-volume set was developed to help researchers and practitioners select measures to be used in the evaluation of human/machine systems.

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Author: Valerie Jane Gawron

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780429672736

Category: Psychology

Page: 388

View: 432

This two-volume set was developed to help researchers and practitioners select measures to be used in the evaluation of human/machine systems. It can also be used to supplement classes at both the undergraduate and graduate courses in ergonomics, experimental psychology, human factors, human performance, measurement, and system test and evaluation. Volume 1 of the handbook begins with an overview of the steps involved in developing a test to measure human performance, workload, and/or situational awareness. This is followed by a definition of human performance and a review of human performance measures. Situational Awareness is similarly treated in a subsequent chapter. Volume 2 presents a definition of workload and a review of workload measures. Provides a short engineering tutorial on experimental design Offers readily accessible information on human performance, workload, and situational awareness (SA) measures Presents general description of the measure Covers data collection, reduction, and analysis requirement Details out the strengths and limitations or restrictions of each measure, including any known proprietary rights or restrictions, as well as validity and reliability data

Designing for Situation Awareness

In Proceedings of the Sixth IFAC/IFIP/IFOR/IEA Symposium on Analysis, Design and Evaluation of ... Situation awareness measurement in test and evaluation.

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Author: Mica R. Endsley

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420063585

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 396

View: 394

The barrage of data overload is threatening the ability of people to effectively operate in a wide range of systems including aircraft cockpits and ground control stations, military command and control centers, intelligence operations, emergency management, medical systems, air traffic control centers, automobiles, financial and business management systems, space exploration, and power and process control rooms. All of these systems need user interfaces that allow people to effectively manage the information available to gain a high level of understanding of what is currently happening and projections on what will happen next. They need systems designed to support situation awareness. Addressing the information gap between the plethora of disorganized, low-level data and what decision makers really need to know, Designing for Situation Awareness: An Approach to User-Centered Design, Second Edition provides a successful, systematic methodology and 50 design principles for engineers and designers seeking to improve the situation awareness of their systems' users based on leading research on a wide range of relevant issues. See what’s new in the Second Edition: Significantly expanded and updated examples throughout to a wider range of domains New Chapters: Situation Awareness Oriented Training and Supporting SA in Unmanned and Remotely Operated Vehicles Updated research findings and expanded discussion of the SA design principles and guidelines to cover new areas of development Mica R. Endsley is a pioneer and world leader in the study and application of situation awareness in advanced systems. Debra G. Jones work is focused on designing large-scale and complex systems to support situation awareness and dynamic decision making. Completely revised and updated, liberally illustrated with actual design examples, this second edition demonstrates how people acquire and interpret information and examines the factors that undermine this process. Endsley and Jones distill their expertise and translate current research into usable, applicable methods and guidelines.

Distributed Situation Awareness in Road Transport

This book answers this question by showcasing how state-of-the-art human factors theory and methods can be used to understand how situation awareness differs across drivers, cyclists, motorcyclists, and pedestrians and creates new designs ...

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Author: Paul M. Salmon

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317054573

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 264

View: 143

How can we design transport environments that cater to the situation awareness needs of different end-users? This book answers this question by showcasing how state-of-the-art human factors theory and methods can be used to understand how situation awareness differs across drivers, cyclists, motorcyclists, and pedestrians and creates new designs that cater to these diverse situation awareness needs. Written by experts in the field and based on a major program of work funded by the Australian Research Council, this book outlines the distributed situation awareness model and provides practical guidance on how to study situation awareness naturalistically and how to create designs that support, rather than hinder, situation awareness. The book closes by outlining outline a generic framework to support similar applications in other areas, and discusses future applications in areas such as vehicle automation, artificial intelligence, and cybersecurity.

Human Performance Situation Awareness and Automation

Using observer ratings to assess situation awareness, In M. R. Endsley (ed.). Situation awareness analysis and measurement. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum ...

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Author: Dennis A. Vincenzi

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781135604332

Category: Psychology

Page: 632

View: 341

In 2000, the Conference on Automation joined forces with a partner group on situation awareness (SA). The rising complexity of systems demands that one can be aware of a large range of environmental and task-based stimulation in order to match what is done with what has to be done. Thus, SA and automation-based interaction fall naturally together and this conference is the second embodiment of this union. Moving into the 21st century, further diversification of the applications of automation will continue--for example, the revolution in genetic technology. Given the broad nature of this form of human-machine interaction, it is vital to apply past lessons to map a future for the symbiotic relationship between humans and the artifacts they create. It is as part of this ongoing endeavor that the present volume is offered.

Human Performance and Situation Awareness Measures

Bolstad, C.A. Individual pilot differences related to situation awareness. ... and D.J. Garland (Eds.) Situation Awareness: Analysis and Measurement (pp.

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Author: Valerie Jane Gawron

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780429671272

Category: Psychology

Page: 190

View: 595

This book was developed to help researchers and practitioners select measures to be used in the evaluation of human/machine systems. The book begins with an overview of the steps involved in developing a test to measure human performance. This is followed by a definition of human performance and a review of human performance measures. Another section defines situational awareness with reviews of situational awareness measures. For both the performance and situational awareness sections, each measure is described, along with its strengths and limitations, data requirements, threshold values, and sources of further information. To make this reference easier to use, extensive author and subject indices are provided. Features Provides a short engineering tutorial on experimental design Offers readily accessible information on human performance and situational awareness (SA) measures Presents general description of the measure Covers data collection, reduction, and analysis requirements Details the strengths and limitations or restrictions of each measure, including proprietary rights or restrictions

Vehicle Feedback and Driver Situation Awareness

Direct measurement of situation awareness: validity and use of SAGAT. In M. R. Endsley, and D. G. Garland (Eds.), Situation Awareness Analysis and ...

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Author: Guy H. Walker

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781317147855

Category: Computers

Page: 356

View: 532

A potentially troubling aspect of modern vehicle design – some would argue - is a trend for isolating the driver and reducing vehicle feedback, usually in the name of comfort and refinement but increasingly because of automation. There is little doubt cars have become more civilised over the years, yet despite this, the consequences of driver behaviour remain to a large extent anecdotal. Readers will have heard such anecdotes for themselves. They usually take the form of drivers of a certain age recalling their first cars from the 1970s or 80s, in which "doing 70 mph really felt like it". The question is whether such anecdotes actually reflect a bigger, more significant issue that could be better understood. Related questions have been explored in other domains such as aviation, where the change to ‘fly-by-wire’ did indeed bring about some occasionally serious performance issues that were not anticipated. Despite some clear parallels, automotive systems have been left relatively unstudied. The research described in this book aims to explore precisely these issues from a Human Factors perspective. This means connecting the topics of vehicle feel, vehicle dynamics, and automotive engineering with the latest research on driver situation awareness. The problem is explored experimentally from a variety of theoretical viewpoints but the outcomes are consistently practical. Here we have a promising new avenue along which the driver experience can be enhanced in novel and insightful ways. Tools and templates are provided so that engineers and designers can try different ways to boost vehicle safety, efficiency and enjoyment from a human-centered perspective. Association of American Publishers (AAP) Finalist for the 2019 PROSE Award Features Diagnosis of how vehicle feel impacts driver situation awareness, and how this could aid future vehicle designs Multi-theory approach to driver situation awareness, and how different views of this important concept give rise to different insights Comprehensive analysis of situation awareness in driving, the information requirements of drivers, and how these needs can be supported Practical descriptions of how state-of-science Human Factors methods have been applied in practice

Situational Awareness

... M (1995) Toward a theory of situation awareness in dynamic systems. ... In: Endsley M, Garland D (eds) Situation awareness analysis and measurement.

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Author: Eduardo Salas

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351548557

Category: Education

Page: 544

View: 106

Situational awareness has become an increasingly salient factor contributing to flight safety and operational performance, and the research has burgeoned to cope with the human performance challenges associated with the installation of advanced avionics systems in modern aircraft. The systematic study and application of situational awareness has also extended beyond the cockpit to include air traffic controllers and personnel operating within other complex, high consequence work domains. This volume offers a collection of essays that have made important contributions to situational awareness research and practice. To this end, it provides unique access to key readings that address the conceptual development of situational awareness, methods for its assessment, and applications to enhance situational awareness through training and design.

A Cognitive Approach to Situation Awareness Theory and Application

... M.R. Endsley (eds), Experimental Analysis and Measurement of Situation Awareness, EmbryRiddle Aeronautical University Press, Dayton Beach, Florida, pp.

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Author: Sébastien Tremblay

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351962650

Category: Psychology

Page: 384

View: 578

The importance of 'situation awareness' (SA) in assessing and predicting operator competence in complex environments has become increasingly apparent in recent years. It has been widely established that SA is a contributing factor to many commercial and military accidents and incidents. Yet determining exactly what constitutes SA is a very difficult task, given the complexity of the construct itself, and the many different processes involved with its acquisition and maintenance. This volume brings together recent developments from researchers and practitioners from around the world who are studying and applying SA from a cognitive perspective. The 41 contributors represent many different theoretical perspectives, research approaches and domains of application. Each chapter has a primary emphasis around one of three main topics - theory, measurement and application and examines the considerable inter-linkage between them. To bring further coherence to the book, all of the contributors received draft manuscripts of those chapters most relevant to their own. Designed to be completely international and interdisciplinary, the authors themselves present varied perspectives from academic departments and industrial organisations from around the world, and from broad applications - with contributions from researchers in the domains of process control, sport, aviation, transportation, and command and control. The readership includes practitioners, academics and researchers within human factors, ergonomics and industrial psychology; Graduate and Undergraduate students specialising within these areas during their final year.

Reliability and Risk Issues in Large Scale Safety critical Digital Control Systems

Wiley, New York, 284—314 Endsley MR, Garland DJ (2001) Situation awareness: analysis and measurement. Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ Gibson CP, Garrett AJ (1990) ...

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Author: Poong-Hyun Seong

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781848003842

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 304

View: 860

“Reliability and Risk Issues in Large Scale Safety-critical Digital Control Systems” provides a comprehensive coverage of reliability issues and their corresponding countermeasures in the field of large-scale digital control systems, from the hardware and software in digital systems to the human operators who supervise the overall process of large-scale systems. Unlike other books which examine theories and issues in individual fields, this book reviews important problems and countermeasures across the fields of software reliability, software verification and validation, digital systems, human factors engineering and human reliability analysis. Divided into four sections dealing with software reliability, digital system reliability, human reliability and human operators in large-scale digital systems, the book offers insights from professional researchers in each specialized field in a diverse yet unified approach.

Human Factors in Simulation and Training

SACRI: A measure of situation awareness for nuclear power plant control rooms, in D.J. Garland and M. R. Endsley (Eds.), Experimental Analysis and ...

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Author: Peter A. Hancock

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420072846

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 453

View: 958

Measure twice, cut once. Although applicable to all areas of human factors research, the old adage is especially relevant to simulation and training. As a tool, simulation is an aid to the imagination, however, if incorrectly or inadequately used, it can lead to inaccurate outcomes that not only limit the possibilities but potentially cause harm. A comprehensive overview of the topic from a human factor perspective, Human Factors in Simulation and Training not only reflects the state-of-the art but also integrates the literature on simulation into a cohesive resource. The editors have collected chapters on a wide variety of topics, beginning with theory and application in areas ranging from traditional training to augmented reality to virtual reality. This coverage includes surface ships, submarines, naval aviation, commercial aviation, space, and medicine. The theory based section focuses on human factors aspects of simulation and training ranging from the history of simulators and training devices, to future trends in simulation from both a civilian and military perspective. The chapters expand on concepts regarding simulator usage particularly with respect to the validity and functionality of simulators as training devices. They contain in depth discussions of specific issues including fidelity, interfaces and control devices, transfer of training, simulator sickness, effects of motion in simulated systems, and virtual reality. As more, and more sophisticated, simulation tools and training technologies become available, a complete understanding of how to use them appropriately will be even more crucial. Elucidating theory and application, the book addresses numerous issues and concepts pertaining to human factors in simulation and training, making this volume an important addition to the bookshelf of any human factors professional.

Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics

... “Using Observer Ratings to Assess Situational Awareness in Tactical Air Environments,” in Experimental Analysis and Measurement of Situation Awareness, ...

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Author: Gavriel Salvendy

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118129081

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1752

View: 651

The fourth edition of the Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomicshas been completely revised and updated. This includes allexisting third edition chapters plus new chapters written to covernew areas. These include the following subjects: Managing low-back disorder risk in the workplace Online interactivity Neuroergonomics Office ergonomics Social networking HF&E in motor vehicle transportation User requirements Human factors and ergonomics in aviation Human factors in ambient intelligent environments As with the earlier editions, the main purpose of this handbookis to serve the needs of the human factors and ergonomicsresearchers, practitioners, and graduate students. Each chapter hasa strong theory and scientific base, but is heavily focused on realworld applications. As such, a significant number of case studies,examples, figures, and tables are included to aid in theunderstanding and application of the material covered.

Distributed Situation Awareness

Theory, Measurement and Application to Teamwork Dr Daniel P Jenkins, Dr Guy H Walker, ... Situation awarenessmeasurement and analysis: A commentary.

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Author: Dr Daniel P Jenkins

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 9781409486121

Category: Psychology

Page: 266

View: 788

Having an accurate understanding of what is going on is a key commodity for teams working within military systems. 'Situation awareness' (SA) is the term that is used within human factors circles to describe the level of awareness that operators have of the situation that they are engaged in; it focuses on how operators develop and maintain a sufficient understanding of 'what is going on' in order to achieve success in task performance. Over the past two decades, the construct has become a fundamental theme within the areas of system design and evaluation and has received considerable attention from the human factors research community. Despite this, there is still considerable debate over how SA operates in complex collaborative systems and how SA achievement and maintenance is best supported through system, procedure and interface design. This book focuses on the recently developed concept of distributed situation awareness, which takes a systems perspective on the concept and moves the focus on situation awareness out of the heads of individual operators and on to the overall joint cognitive system consisting of human and technological agents. Situation awareness is viewed as an emergent property of collaborative systems, something that resides in the interaction between elements of the system and not in the heads of individual operators working in that system. The first part of the book presents a comprehensive review and critique of existing SA theory and measurement approaches, following which a novel model for complex collaborative systems, the distributed SA model, and a new modelling procedure, the propositional network approach, are outlined and demonstrated. The next part focuses on real-world applications of the model and modelling procedure, and presents four case studies undertaken in the land warfare, multinational warfare and energy distribution domains. Each case study is described in terms of the domain in question, the methodology employed, and the findings derived in relation to situation awareness theory. The third and final part of the book then concentrates on theoretical development, and uses the academic literature and the findings from the case study applications to validate and extend the distributed SA model described at the beginning of the book. In closing, the utility of the distributed SA model and modeling procedure are outlined and a series of initial guidelines for supporting distributed SA through system design are articulated.

Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation Surgery and Surgical Subspecialties

Measuring situation awareness in complex systems: comparison of measures study. Int JInd Ergon. ... Situation awareness analysis and measurement.

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Author: Dimitrios Stefanidis

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319982762

Category: Medical

Page: 401

View: 949

This pragmatic book is a guide for the use of simulation in surgery and surgical subspecialties, including general surgery, urology, gynecology, cardiothoracic and vascular surgery, orthopedics, ophthalmology, and otolaryngology. It offers evidence-based recommendations for the application of simulation in surgery and addresses procedural skills training, clinical decision-making and team training, and discusses the future of surgical simulation. Readers are introduced to the different simulation modalities and technologies used in surgery with a variety of learners including students, residents, practicing surgeons, and other health-related professionals.

Handbook of Human Factors Testing and Evaluation

Subjective measures of situation awareness. In M. R. Endsley & D.J. Garland (Eds.), Situation awareness analysis and measurement.

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Author: Samuel G. Charlton

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000751574

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 568

View: 421

Like the first edition, the revision of this successful Handbook responds to the growing need for specific tools and methods for testing and evaluating human-system interfaces. Indications are that the market for information on these tools and applications will continue to grow in the 21st century. One of the goals of offering a second edition is to expand and emphasize the application chapters, providing contemporary examples of human factors test and evaluation (HFTE) enterprises across a range of systems and environments. Coverage of the standard tools and techniques used in HFTE have been updated as well. New features of the Handbook of Human Factors Testing and Evaluation include: *new chapters covering human performance testing, manufacturing ergonomics, anthropometry, generative design methods, and usability testing; *updated tools and techniques for modeling, simulation, embedded testing, training assessment, and psychophysiological measurement; *new applications chapters presenting human factors testing examples in aviation and avionics, forestry, road safety, and software systems; and *more examples, illustrations, graphics and tables have been added. The orientation of the current work has been toward breadth of coverage rather than in-depth treatment of a few issues or techniques. Experienced testers will find much that is familiar, as well as new tools, creative approaches, and a rekindled enthusiasm. Newcomers will discover the diversity of issues, methods, and creative approaches that make up the field. In addition, the book is written in such a way that individuals outside the profession should learn the intrinsic value and pleasure in ensuring safe, efficient, and effective operation, as well as increased user satisfaction through HFTE.

International Encyclopedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors Second Edition 3 Volume Set

In D.J. Garland and M.R. Endsley (eds) Experimental Analysis and Measurement of Situation Awareness (Daytona Beach: EmbryRiddle University), pp.

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Author: Informa Healthcare

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0849375479

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 3728

View: 287

The previous edition of the International Encyclopedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors made history as the first unified source of reliable information drawn from many realms of science and technology and created specifically with ergonomics professionals in mind. It was also a winner of the Best Reference Award 2002 from the Engineering Libraries Division, American Society of Engineering Education, USA, and the Outstanding Academic Title 2002 from Choice Magazine. Not content to rest on his laurels, human factors and ergonomics expert Professor Waldemar Karwowski has overhauled his standard-setting resource, incorporating coverage of tried and true methods, fundamental principles, and major paradigm shifts in philosophy, thought, and design. Demonstrating the truly interdisciplinary nature of this field, these changes make the second edition even more comprehensive, more informative, more, in a word, encyclopedic. Keeping the format popularized by the first edition, the new edition has been completely revised and updated. Divided into 13 sections and organized alphabetically within each section, the entries provide a clear and simple outline of the topics as well as precise and practical information. The book reviews applications, tools, and innovative concepts related to ergonomic research. Technical terms are defined (where possible) within entries as well as in a glossary. Students and professionals will find this format invaluable, whether they have ergonomics, engineering, computing, or psychology backgrounds. Experts and researchers will also find it an excellent source of information on areas beyond the range of their direct interests.

Situational Awareness in Computer Network Defense Principles Methods and Applications

Situation Awareness Analysis and Measurement. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Garba, D. M., & Howard, S. K. (1995). Situation Awareness in ...

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Author: Onwubiko, Cyril

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781466601055

Category: Computers

Page: 414

View: 174

"This book provides academia and organizations insights into practical and applied solutions, frameworks, technologies, and implementations for situational awareness in computer networks"--Provided by publisher.