VB 2012 Sun Position

All of the Visual Basic source code in this book provides working example results for variables at every step of the way. This is the critical piece that makes this book a valuable resource for translating to any other programming language.

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Author: John Clark Craig

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:824132677

Category: Algorithms

Page:

View: 706

Knowing how to calculate the sun's position in the sky with very high accuracy is at the core of just about all solar energy research, whether for site planning, or real time aiming of the most sophisticated concentrating receivers, heliostats, and photovoltaic tracking systems. Sun Position's Visual Basic algorithms meet that core need. The author, John Clark Craig, programmed all the field control and data acquisition for several of the world's largest solar energy projects in the 1980's. Projects included the square-mile two-axis concentrating photovoltaic trackers at Carrissa Plains, California, the large Hesperia, California field of flat two-axis photovoltaic trackers, an enhanced oil recovery project using a field of heliostats and a central thermal receiver tower near Taft, California, and a variety of research and development projects at Sandia Labs, Solar 1 at Barstow, the Weizmann Institute, Tennessee Valley Authority, and elsewhere around the world. While developing software systems for these projects, John was constantly looking for the best algorithms and improved code for determining accurate sun position. Most of the available documentation was not easy to use, with bits and pieces of algorithms here and there, mixed in with poorly explained terminology, and with very little guidance for translating to programming languages he was required to use. Sun Position is the book he wishes he had when he really needed it! Two algorithms are presented for calculating sun position. The first algorithm is of "low accuracy", determining the sun's position with a maximum error of about 0.02 degrees. The second algorithm is much more involved, but it provides a "high accuracy" sun position with a maximum error of about 0.00003 degrees. This is the code to use if you need the absolute best accuracy for heliostats and critically aimed solar concentrators of all types. All of the Visual Basic source code in this book provides working example results for variables at every step of the way. This is the critical piece that makes this book a valuable resource for translating to any other programming language.

Sun Position Calculator

Senol Gulgonul presents a calculator that determines the sun's position at any given location. Users must enter their latitude, longitude, date, time zone, and twilight angles to acquire a position.

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Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:49784997

Category:

Page:

View: 934

Senol Gulgonul presents a calculator that determines the sun's position at any given location. Users must enter their latitude, longitude, date, time zone, and twilight angles to acquire a position.

Tracking Solar Concentrators

The relevant formulae are valid at any spacial and temporal location on the earth.
The rule which allows us to compute the sun's position at any time is cross-
checked with the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Position ...

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Author: Zafrullah Jagoo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400761049

Category: Science

Page: 99

View: 385

Harnessing a multitude of complementary green energy sources is the only plausible way to satisfy the energy demands of a greedy global economy. The potential of solar energy (being the most abundant) in fulfilling part of the energy requirements of mankind is immense and constitutes the focal point of this book. A self-powered solar tracker that points directly towards the sun by means of an integrated control mechanism with two degrees of rotational freedom was studied and developed. The electro-mechanical control system is based on a precisely-timed microcontroller circuit that first computes the altitude and azimuth of the sun in real-time and then drives a pair of stepper motors that steer the solar tracker towards it. A locally built fibre-glass parabolic dish, the surface of which is lined with a reflective vinyl mirror film, serves to concentrate solar rays on its surface.

Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements

Solar position calculations are used for a wide variety of tasks from setting up
solar monitoring stations to positioning photovoltaic panels to maximize electricity
output. Solar position is used in the analysis of irradiance data and is essential
for ...

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Author: Frank Vignola

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439851906

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 410

View: 146

The rather specialized field of solar and infrared radiation measurement has become more and more important in the face of growing demands by the renewable energy and climate change research communities for data that are more accurate and have increased temporal and spatial resolution. Updating decades of acquired knowledge in the field, Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements details the strengths and weaknesses of instruments used to conduct such solar and infrared radiation measurements. Topics covered include: Radiometer design and performance Equipment calibration, installation, operation, and maintenance Data quality assessment Methods to use measured data to estimate irradiance for any surface With a broad range of content that will benefit students and more experienced readers alike, this resource serves as a primer and technical reference that presents the basic terminology and fundamentals for resource assessment. It explores the history of solar radiation instruments and addresses direct normal, global, diffuse, and tilted measurements, as well as the characteristics of instruments used for these measurements. The authors consider methods of assessing the uncertainty of solar measurements and then cover albedo, infrared, net, and spectral irradiance measurements and instrumentation. The book devotes a section to other meteorological instruments, and another to the basics for installing and operating a solar monitoring station. Appendices include information on solar resource assessment modeling and satellite-derived irradiance, along with other useful material. This book’s authors are experts who each have more than 30 years of experience developing and operating multiple measurement stations, working with industry to improve radiometry, and conducting various research projects.

Contributions

The following conclusions seem obvious from the work done and the mass of
material under observation : ( 1 ) That there are great numbers of plants which
put their leaves in a special or hot sun position . ( 2 ) That these hot sun positions
 ...

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Author: University of Pennsylvania. Botanical Laboratory

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105020887886

Category: Botany

Page:

View: 288

Contributions from the Botanical Laboratory and the Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania

The following conclusions seem obvious from the work done and the mass of
material under observation : ( 1 ) That there are great numbers of plants which
put their leaves in a special or hot sun position . ( 2 ) That these hot sun positions
 ...

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Author: University of Pennsylvania. Botanical Laboratory

Publisher:

ISBN: CORNELL:31924067876759

Category: Botany

Page:

View: 455

Sun Dog s Obsession

Of all our crops, maize takes the longest time to mature so it is important to get it
started as early as possible. Last evening, our Medicine Man, Six Fingers,
decided it was time to plant maize when he had sighted the setting sun's position
from ...

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Author: Harold Heidler

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 9780557156955

Category:

Page: 133

View: 442

Sun Dog and his father, Loud Dog find a mare, she gives birth to Patch. Patch fulfills Sun Dog's dream of having a horse. The Spaniards attack their village, which forces the Indians to move to hide. Fear causes them go to the Apache to learn the art of warfare.

Small Format Aerial Photography

How an object appears in an aerial photograph depends on the way in which it is
illuminated and the position of the camera relative ... In addition to viewing angle
and sun position, many other factors influence lighting and reflectivity typically ...

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Author: James S. Aber

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080932835

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 268

View: 659

As the need for geographical data rapidly expands in the 21st century, so too do applications of small-format aerial photography for a wide range of scientific, commercial and governmental purposes. Small-format Aerial Photography (SFAP) presents basic and advanced principles and techniques with an emphasis on digital cameras. Unmanned platforms are described in considerable detail, including kites, helium and hot-air blimps, model airplanes, and paragliders. Several case studies, primarily drawn from the geosciences, are presented to demonstrate how SFAP is actually used in various applications. Many of these integrate SFAP with ground-based investigations as well as conventional large-format aerial photography, satellite imagery, and other kinds of geographic information. Full-color photographs throughout Case studies from around the globe Techniques presented allow for image resolution impossible to match via traditional aerial photography or satellite datasets Glossary clarifies key terms

Sun Tracker Automatic Solar Tracking Sun Tracking Systems Solar Trackers and Automatic Sun Tracker Systems

High precision solar position algorithms, programs, software and source-code for
computing the solar vector, solar coordinates & sun angles in Microprocessor,
PLC, Arduino, PIC and PC-based sun tracking devices or dynamic sun following
 ...

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Author: Gerro Prinsloo

Publisher: Gerro Prinsloo

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 323

View: 289

This book details Automatic Solar-Tracking, Sun-Tracking-Systems, Solar-Trackers and Sun Tracker Systems. An intelligent automatic solar tracker is a device that orients a payload toward the sun. Such programmable computer based solar tracking device includes principles of solar tracking, solar tracking systems, as well as microcontroller, microprocessor and/or PC based solar tracking control to orientate solar reflectors, solar lenses, photovoltaic panels or other optical configurations towards the sun. Motorized space frames and kinematic systems ensure motion dynamics and employ drive technology and gearing principles to steer optical configurations such as mangin, parabolic, conic, or cassegrain solar energy collectors to face the sun and follow the sun movement contour continuously. In harnessing power from the sun through a solar tracker or practical solar tracking system, renewable energy control automation systems require automatic solar tracking software and solar position algorithms to accomplish dynamic motion control with control automation architecture, circuit boards and hardware. On-axis sun tracking system such as the altitude-azimuth dual axis or multi-axis solar tracker systems use a sun tracking algorithm or ray tracing sensors or software to ensure the sun's passage through the sky is traced with high precision in automated solar tracker applications, right through summer solstice, solar equinox and winter solstice. A high precision sun position calculator or sun position algorithm is this an important step in the design and construction of an automatic solar tracking system. From sun tracing software perspective, the sonnet Tracing The Sun has a literal meaning. Within the context of sun track and trace, this book explains that the sun's daily path across the sky is directed by relatively simple principles, and if grasped/understood, then it is relatively easy to trace the sun with sun following software. Sun position computer software for tracing the sun are available as open source code, sources that is listed in this book. Ironically there was even a system called sun chaser, said to have been a solar positioner system known for chasing the sun throughout the day. Using solar equations in an electronic circuit for automatic solar tracking is quite simple, even if you are a novice, but mathematical solar equations are over complicated by academic experts and professors in text-books, journal articles and internet websites. In terms of solar hobbies, scholars, students and Hobbyist's looking at solar tracking electronics or PC programs for solar tracking are usually overcome by the sheer volume of scientific material and internet resources, which leaves many developers in frustration when search for simple experimental solar tracking source-code for their on-axis sun-tracking systems. This booklet will simplify the search for the mystical sun tracking formulas for your sun tracker innovation and help you develop your own autonomous solar tracking controller. By directing the solar collector directly into the sun, a solar harvesting means or device can harness sunlight or thermal heat. This is achieved with the help of sun angle formulas, solar angle formulas or solar tracking procedures for the calculation of sun's position in the sky. Automatic sun tracking system software includes algorithms for solar altitude azimuth angle calculations required in following the sun across the sky. In using the longitude, latitude GPS coordinates of the solar tracker location, these sun tracking software tools supports precision solar tracking by determining the solar altitude-azimuth coordinates for the sun trajectory in altitude-azimuth tracking at the tracker location, using certain sun angle formulas in sun vector calculations. Instead of follow the sun software, a sun tracking sensor such as a sun sensor or webcam or video camera with vision based sun following image processing software can also be used to determine the position of the sun optically. Such optical feedback devices are often used in solar panel tracking systems and dish tracking systems. Dynamic sun tracing is also used in solar surveying, DNI analyser and sun surveying systems that build solar infographics maps with solar radiance, irradiance and DNI models for GIS (geographical information system). In this way geospatial methods on solar/environment interaction makes use use of geospatial technologies (GIS, Remote Sensing, and Cartography). Climatic data and weather station or weather center data, as well as queries from sky servers and solar resource database systems (i.e. on DB2, Sybase, Oracle, SQL, MySQL) may also be associated with solar GIS maps. In such solar resource modelling systems, a pyranometer or solarimeter is normally used in addition to measure direct and indirect, scattered, dispersed, reflective radiation for a particular geographical location. Sunlight analysis is important in flash photography where photographic lighting are important for photographers. GIS systems are used by architects who add sun shadow applets to study architectural shading or sun shadow analysis, solar flux calculations, optical modelling or to perform weather modelling. Such systems often employ a computer operated telescope type mechanism with ray tracing program software as a solar navigator or sun tracer that determines the solar position and intensity. The purpose of this booklet is to assist developers to track and trace suitable source-code and solar tracking algorithms for their application, whether a hobbyist, scientist, technician or engineer. Many open-source sun following and tracking algorithms and source-code for solar tracking programs and modules are freely available to download on the internet today. Certain proprietary solar tracker kits and solar tracking controllers include a software development kit SDK for its application programming interface API attributes (Pebble). Widget libraries, widget toolkits, GUI toolkit and UX libraries with graphical control elements are also available to construct the graphical user interface (GUI) for your solar tracking or solar power monitoring program. The solar library used by solar position calculators, solar simulation software and solar contour calculators include machine program code for the solar hardware controller which are software programmed into Micro-controllers, Programmable Logic Controllers PLC, programmable gate arrays, Arduino processor or PIC processor. PC based solar tracking is also high in demand using C++, Visual Basic VB, as well as MS Windows, Linux and Apple Mac based operating systems for sun path tables on Matlab, Excel. Some books and internet webpages use other terms, such as: sun angle calculator, sun position calculator or solar angle calculator. As said, such software code calculate the solar azimuth angle, solar altitude angle, solar elevation angle or the solar Zenith angle (Zenith solar angle is simply referenced from vertical plane, the mirror of the elevation angle measured from the horizontal or ground plane level). Similar software code is also used in solar calculator apps or the solar power calculator apps for IOS and Android smartphone devices. Most of these smartphone solar mobile apps show the sun path and sun-angles for any location and date over a 24 hour period. Some smartphones include augmented reality features in which you can physically see and look at the solar path through your cell phone camera or mobile phone camera at your phone's specific GPS location. In the computer programming and digital signal processing (DSP) environment, (free/open source) program code are available for VB, .Net, Delphi, Python, C, C+, C++, PHP, Swift, ADM, F, Flash, Basic, QBasic, GBasic, KBasic, SIMPL language, Squirrel, Solaris, Assembly language on operating systems such as MS Windows, Apple Mac, DOS or Linux OS. Software algorithms predicting position of the sun in the sky are commonly available as graphical programming platforms such as Matlab (Mathworks), Simulink models, Java applets, TRNSYS simulations, Scada system apps, Labview module, Beckhoff TwinCAT (Visual Studio), Siemens SPA, mobile and iphone apps, Android or iOS tablet apps, and so forth. At the same time, PLC software code for a range of sun tracking automation technology can follow the profile of sun in sky for Siemens, HP, Panasonic, ABB, Allan Bradley, OMRON, SEW, Festo, Beckhoff, Rockwell, Schneider, Endress Hauser, Fudji electric. Honeywell, Fuchs, Yokonawa, or Muthibishi platforms. Sun path projection software are also available for a range of modular IPC embedded PC motherboards, Industrial PC, PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and PAC (Programmable Automation Controller) such as the Siemens S7-1200 or Siemens Logo, Beckhoff IPC or CX series, OMRON PLC, Ercam PLC, AC500plc ABB, National Instruments NI PXI or NI cRIO, PIC processor, Intel 8051/8085, IBM (Cell, Power, Brain or Truenorth series), FPGA (Xilinx Altera Nios), Intel, Xeon, Atmel megaAVR, MPU, Maple, Teensy, MSP, XMOS, Xbee, ARM, Raspberry Pi, Eagle, Arduino or Arduino AtMega microcontroller, with servo motor, stepper motor, direct current DC pulse width modulation PWM (current driver) or alternating current AC SPS or IPC variable frequency drives VFD motor drives (also termed adjustable-frequency drive, variable-speed drive, AC drive, micro drive or inverter drive) for electrical, mechatronic, pneumatic, or hydraulic solar tracking actuators. The above motion control and robot control systems include analogue or digital interfacing ports on the processors to allow for tracker angle orientation feedback control through one or a combination of angle sensor or angle encoder, shaft encoder, precision encoder, optical encoder, magnetic encoder, direction encoder, rotational encoder, chip encoder, tilt sensor, inclination sensor, or pitch sensor. Note that the tracker's elevation or zenith axis angle may measured using an altitude angle-, declination angle-, inclination angle-, pitch angle-, or vertical angle-, zenith angle- sensor or inclinometer. Similarly the tracker's azimuth axis angle be measured with a azimuth angle-, horizontal angle-, or roll angle- sensor. Chip integrated accelerometer magnetometer gyroscope type angle sensors can also be used to calculate displacement. Other options include the use of thermal imaging systems such as a Fluke thermal imager, or robotic or vision based solar tracker systems that employ face tracking, head tracking, hand tracking, eye tracking and car tracking principles in solar tracking. With unattended decentralised rural, island, isolated, or autonomous off-grid power installations, remote control, monitoring, data acquisition, digital datalogging and online measurement and verification equipment becomes crucial. It assists the operator with supervisory control to monitor the efficiency of remote renewable energy resources and systems and provide valuable web-based feedback in terms of CO2 and clean development mechanism (CDM) reporting. A power quality analyser for diagnostics through internet, WiFi and cellular mobile links is most valuable in frontline troubleshooting and predictive maintenance, where quick diagnostic analysis is required to detect and prevent power quality issues. Solar tracker applications cover a wide spectrum of solar energy and concentrated solar devices, including solar power generation, solar desalination, solar water purification, solar steam generation, solar electricity generation, solar industrial process heat, solar thermal heat storage, solar food dryers, solar water pumping, hydrogen production from methane or producing hydrogen and oxygen from water (HHO) through electrolysis. Many patented or non-patented solar apparatus include tracking in solar apparatus for solar electric generator, solar desalinator, solar steam engine, solar ice maker, solar water purifier, solar cooling, solar refrigeration, USB solar charger, solar phone charging, portable solar charging tracker, solar coffee brewing, solar cooking or solar dying means. Your project may be the next breakthrough or patent, but your invention is held back by frustration in search for the sun tracker you require for your solar powered appliance, solar generator, solar tracker robot, solar freezer, solar cooker, solar drier, solar pump, solar freezer, or solar dryer project. Whether your solar electronic circuit diagram include a simplified solar controller design in a solar electricity project, solar power kit, solar hobby kit, solar steam generator, solar hot water system, solar ice maker, solar desalinator, hobbyist solar panels, hobby robot, or if you are developing professional or hobby electronics for a solar utility or micro scale solar powerplant for your own solar farm or solar farming, this publication may help accelerate the development of your solar tracking innovation. Lately, solar polygeneration, solar trigeneration (solar triple generation), and solar quad generation (adding delivery of steam, liquid/gaseous fuel, or capture food-grade CO$_2$) systems have need for automatic solar tracking. These systems are known for significant efficiency increases in energy yield as a result of the integration and re-use of waste or residual heat and are suitable for compact packaged micro solar powerplants that could be manufactured and transported in kit-form and operate on a plug-and play basis. Typical hybrid solar power systems include compact or packaged solar micro combined heat and power (CHP or mCHP) or solar micro combined, cooling, heating and power (CCHP, CHPC, mCCHP, or mCHPC) systems used in distributed power generation. These systems are often combined in concentrated solar CSP and CPV smart microgrid configurations for off-grid rural, island or isolated microgrid, minigrid and distributed power renewable energy systems. Solar tracking algorithms are also used in modelling of trigeneration systems using Matlab Simulink (Modelica or TRNSYS) platform as well as in automation and control of renewable energy systems through intelligent parsing, multi-objective, adaptive learning control and control optimization strategies. Solar tracking algorithms also find application in developing solar models for country or location specific solar studies, for example in terms of measuring or analysis of the fluctuations of the solar radiation (i.e. direct and diffuse radiation) in a particular area. Solar DNI, solar irradiance and atmospheric information and models can thus be integrated into a solar map, solar atlas or geographical information systems (GIS). Such models allows for defining local parameters for specific regions that may be valuable in terms of the evaluation of different solar in photovoltaic of CSP systems on simulation and synthesis platforms such as Matlab and Simulink or in linear or multi-objective optimization algorithm platforms such as COMPOSE, EnergyPLAN or DER-CAM. A dual-axis solar tracker and single-axis solar tracker may use a sun tracker program or sun tracker algorithm to position a solar dish, solar panel array, heliostat array, PV panel, solar antenna or infrared solar nantenna. A self-tracking solar concentrator performs automatic solar tracking by computing the solar vector. Solar position algorithms (TwinCAT, SPA, or PSA Algorithms) use an astronomical algorithm to calculate the position of the sun. It uses astronomical software algorithms and equations for solar tracking in the calculation of sun's position in the sky for each location on the earth at any time of day. Like an optical solar telescope, the solar position algorithm pin-points the solar reflector at the sun and locks onto the sun's position to track the sun across the sky as the sun progresses throughout the day. Optical sensors such as photodiodes, light-dependant-resistors (LDR) or photoresistors are used as optical accuracy feedback devices. Lately we also included a section in the book (with links to microprocessor code) on how the PixArt Wii infrared camera in the Wii remote or Wiimote may be used in infrared solar tracking applications. In order to harvest free energy from the sun, some automatic solar positioning systems use an optical means to direct the solar tracking device. These solar tracking strategies use optical tracking techniques, such as a sun sensor means, to direct sun rays onto a silicon or CMOS substrate to determine the X and Y coordinates of the sun's position. In a solar mems sun-sensor device, incident sunlight enters the sun sensor through a small pin-hole in a mask plate where light is exposed to a silicon substrate. In a web-camera or camera image processing sun tracking and sun following means, object tracking software performs multi object tracking or moving object tracking methods. In an solar object tracking technique, image processing software performs mathematical processing to box the outline of the apparent solar disc or sun blob within the captured image frame, while sun-localization is performed with an edge detection algorithm to determine the solar vector coordinates. An automated positioning system help maximize the yields of solar power plants through solar tracking control to harness sun's energy. In such renewable energy systems, the solar panel positioning system uses a sun tracking techniques and a solar angle calculator in positioning PV panels in photovoltaic systems and concentrated photovoltaic CPV systems. Automatic on-axis solar tracking in a PV solar tracking system can be dual-axis sun tracking or single-axis sun solar tracking. It is known that a motorized positioning system in a photovoltaic panel tracker increase energy yield and ensures increased power output, even in a single axis solar tracking configuration. Other applications such as robotic solar tracker or robotic solar tracking system uses robotica with artificial intelligence in the control optimization of energy yield in solar harvesting through a robotic tracking system. Automatic positioning systems in solar tracking designs are also used in other free energy generators, such as concentrated solar thermal power CSP and dish Stirling systems. The sun tracking device in a solar collector in a solar concentrator or solar collector Such a performs on-axis solar tracking, a dual axis solar tracker assists to harness energy from the sun through an optical solar collector, which can be a parabolic mirror, parabolic reflector, Fresnel lens or mirror array/matrix. A parabolic dish or reflector is dynamically steered using a transmission system or solar tracking slew drive mean. In steering the dish to face the sun, the power dish actuator and actuation means in a parabolic dish system optically focusses the sun's energy on the focal point of a parabolic dish or solar concentrating means. A Stirling engine, solar heat pipe, thermosyphin, solar phase change material PCM receiver, or a fibre optic sunlight receiver means is located at the focal point of the solar concentrator. The dish Stirling engine configuration is referred to as a dish Stirling system or Stirling power generation system. Hybrid solar power systems (used in combination with biogas, biofuel, petrol, ethanol, diesel, natural gas or PNG) use a combination of power sources to harness and store solar energy in a storage medium. Any multitude of energy sources can be combined through the use of controllers and the energy stored in batteries, phase change material, thermal heat storage, and in cogeneration form converted to the required power using thermodynamic cycles (organic Rankin, Brayton cycle, micro turbine, Stirling) with an inverter and charge controller. Book and literature review is ideal for sun and moon tracking in solar applications for sun-rich countries such as the USA, Spain, Portugal, Mediterranean, Italy, Greece, Mexico, Portugal, China, India, Brazil, Chili, Argentina, South America, etc. 这本书详细介绍了全自动太阳能跟踪,太阳跟踪系统的出现,太阳能跟踪器和太阳跟踪系统。智能全自动太阳能跟踪器是定向向着太阳的有效载荷设备。这种可编程计算机的太阳能跟踪装置,包括太阳跟踪,太阳能跟踪系统,以及微控制器,微处理器和/或基于PC机的太阳跟踪控制,以定向太阳能反射器,太阳透镜,光电板或其他光学配置朝向太阳的原理。机动空间框架和运动系统,确保运动动力学和采用的驱动技术和传动原理引导光学配置,如曼金,抛物线,圆锥曲线,或卡塞格林式太阳能集热器面向太阳,不断跟随太阳运动的轮廓。 从阳光透过太阳能跟踪器或实用的太阳能跟踪系统利用电力,可再生能源控制的自动化系统需要自动太阳跟踪软件和太阳位置算法来实现控制与自动化架构,电路板和硬件的动态运动控制。上轴太阳跟踪系统,如高度,方位角双轴或多轴太阳跟踪系统使用太阳跟踪算法或光线追踪传感器或软件,以确保通过天空中太阳的通道被跟踪的高精度的自动太阳跟踪器的应用,通过正确的夏至,春分太阳和冬至。一种高精度太阳位置计算器或太阳位置算法是这样的自动太阳能跟踪系统的设计和施工中的重要一步。 从太阳跟踪软件的角度来看,十四行诗跟踪太阳有一个字面意义。在太阳跟踪和追踪的背景下,这本书解释说,在天空中太阳的日常路径是通过相对简单的原则导向的,如果掌握/了解的话,就比较容易追查以下软件,太阳有太阳。是太阳位置的计算机软件用于跟踪太阳作为开源代码,列出在这本书的来源。讽刺的是还出现了系统,称为太阳跟踪器,据说已经知道了追逐太阳全天太阳能定位系统。 В этой книге подробно Автоматическая Solar-Tracking, ВС-Tracking-Systems, Solar-трекеры и ВС Tracker Systems. Интеллектуальный автоматический солнечной слежения является устройством, которое ориентирует полезную нагрузку к солнцу. Такое программируемый компьютер на основе солнечной устройство слежения включает принципы солнечной слежения, солнечных систем слежения, а также микроконтроллер, микропроцессор и / или ПК на базе управления солнечной отслеживания ориентироваться солнечных отражателей, солнечные линзы, фотоэлектрические панели или другие оптические конфигурации к ВС Моторизованные космические кадры и кинематические системы обеспечения динамики движения и использовать приводной техники и готовится принципы, чтобы направить оптические конфигурации, такие как Манжен, параболических, конических или Кассегрена солнечных коллекторов энергии, чтобы лицом к солнцу и следовать за солнцем контур движения непрерывно. В обуздывать силу от солнца через солнечный трекер или практической солнечной системы слежения, системы возобновляемых контроля энергии автоматизации требуют автоматического солнечной отслеживания программного обеспечения и алгоритмов солнечные позиции для достижения динамического контроля движения с архитектуры автоматизации управления, печатных плат и аппаратных средств. На оси системы слежения ВС, таких как высота-азимут двойной оси или многоосевые солнечные системы трекер использовать алгоритм отслеживания солнце или трассировки лучей датчиков или программное обеспечение, чтобы обеспечить прохождение солнца по небу прослеживается с высокой точностью в автоматизированных приложений Солнечная Tracker , прямо через летнего солнцестояния, солнечного равноденствия и зимнего солнцестояния.Высокая точность позиции ВС калькулятор или положение солнца алгоритм это важный шаг в проектировании и строительстве автоматической системой солнечной слежения.

Astronomy

Midway between sunrise and points in the direction opposite to the sun's location
sunset , the sun reaches its highest point relative in the sky . The length of the
shadow tells the height to the horizon , which defines noon . The interval of the
sun ...

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Author: Michael Zeilik

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521800900

Category: Nature

Page: 552

View: 523

The ninth edition of this successful textbook describes the full range of the astronomical universe and how astronomers think about the cosmos.

Solar Radiation and Daylight Models

Any sun position software which utilises data at this frequency warrants high
accuracy. Thus older algorithms based on calculating the solar declination angle
(DEC) and the equation of time (EOT) on once a day basis will gradually become
 ...

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Author: Tariq Muneer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136365959

Category: Architecture

Page: 392

View: 337

The cost of operating a building far exceeds the cost of constructing it, and yet until recently little attention was paid to the impact of solar radiation on the costs of heating, cooling and ventilation. And now that there has been a surge in interest in energy efficiency and solar design, architects and designers need a practical guide to the modelling and application of solar energy data. There are many different models and techniques available for calculating the distribution of solar radiation on and in buildings, and these algorithms vary considerably in scope, accuracy and complexity. This book demonstrates which of these predictive tools gives the best results in different circumstances, including explaining which models can be best used in different parts of the world. The author has had over twenty-five years of experience of dealing with solar energy data from four continents and has used that experience in this book to show the development not just of knowledge but also the growing sophistication of the models available to apply it.

North Star to Southern Cross

But each day the sun moves in a slightly different path, and so each day is of
different length than the one before. The sun has an annual motion, too, that
carries it through the zodiac in a year. Each day it is a little farther to the east
against the ...

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Author: Will Kyselka

Publisher: University of Hawaii Press

ISBN: 0824804198

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 583

Reveals the common metaphysical and religious roots of astronomy and astrology and relates facts about stars and constellations

From Animals to Animats 4

How insects learn about the sun's course : alternative modeling approaches
Jeffrey Dickinson Fred Dyer * Department of ... the current solar ephemeris
function early in life , somehow integrating information regarding the sun's
position relative ...

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Author: Mass.) International Conference On Simulation Of Adaptive behavior (4th : 1996 : North Falmouth

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262631784

Category: Science

Page: 644

View: 910

September 9th-13th, 1996, Cape Cod, MassachusettsFrom Animals to Animats 4 brings together the latest research at the frontier of an exciting new approach to understanding intelligence. The contributors represent a broad range of interests from artificial intelligence and robotics to ethology and the neurosciences. Unifying these approaches is the notion of 'animat' -- an artificial animal, either simulated by a computer or embodied in a robot, which must survive and adapt in progressively more challenging environments. The 66 contributions focus particularly on well-defined models, computer simulations, and built robots in order to help characterize and compare various principles and architectures capable of inducing adaptive behavior in real or artificial animals.Major topics, all from the perspective of adaptive behavior, include: The Animat Approach to Adaptive Behavior, Perception and Motor Control, Action Selection and Behavioral Sequences, Internal World Models and Navigation, Motivation and Emotions, Learning, Evolution, Coevolution, Collective Behavior.

Cooking with the Sun

12 MEAT The solar oven lends itself beautifully to cooking meat . ... For example ,
if I left for church at 9:00 in the morning and wanted a 7 - pound roast to be done
when I got home at 12:30 , I would aim the oven at the 10:30 sun position .

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Author: Beth Halacy

Publisher: Morning Sun Press

ISBN: 0962906921

Category: Cooking

Page: 114

View: 447

Briefly traces the history of solar cooking, shows how to make a solar oven and a solar hot plate, and provides recipes for vegetables, casseroles, poultry, fish, meat, breads, and desserts

Vehicle Thermal Management Systems Conference Proceedings VTMS11

In the current paper, a 3D CAE model is developed to predict the cabin and boot
temperatures for different solar loads using commercial software RadTherm (
ThermoAnalytics Inc). Two different cases have been simulated: (i) fixed sun
position ...

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Author: Institution of Mechanical Engineers

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780857094735

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 346

View: 728

The challenges facing vehicle thermal management continue to increase and optimise thermal energy management must continue as an integral part of any vehicle development programme. VTMS11 covers the latest research and technological advances in industry and academia, automotive and off-highway. Topics addressed include: IC engine thermal loading, exhaust and emissions; HEV, EV and alternative powertrain challenges; Waste heat recovery and thermodynamic efficiency improvement; Cooling systems; Heating, A/C, comfort and climate control; Underhood heat transfer and air flow management; Heat exchange components design, materials and manufacture; Thermal systems analysis, control and integration. Covers the latest research and technological advances Brings together developments from industry and academia Presents leading edge research on optimised thermal energy management

A Practical Guide to Renewable Energy Power Systems and their Installation

Solar photovoltaic systems (continued) correct label of isolators, 38 d.c. rated
insolators, 34 DC side of PV system shorted ... 15–19 sun path chart, 9 sun path
viewer fitted with an azimuth chart, 12 sun position throughout the year, 9 symbol
on ...

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Author: Christopher Kitcher

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136073731

Category: Science

Page: 152

View: 678

The renewable energy field is an area of rapid growth with many government initiatives in place to encourage mainstream take-up of energy-saving technologies in buildings. In the UK, over 100,000 students per year undertake plumbing and electrical installation vocational courses that will be directly affected by these developments. More importantly, there will be an even greater number of professionals studying toward renewable energy installation and inspection courses that need this information. This new book from bestselling author Chris Kitcher provides an overview of all of the latest technologies and how they can be incorporated. Students and professionals will use it on a range of courses and as a reference on-site.

English Mechanic and World of Science

B Glass Glass vention of the smallest cloud , and the mercury in available for
comparison with other solar radia- have ... free it from How is this great heat kept
up , and what are the intensity according to the sun's position , Herschel , the
glass .

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Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: CORNELL:31924069709321

Category: Mechanics

Page:

View: 245

English Mechanics and the World of Science

There are obviously two positions in which the (second) latitude arc, L, may be
set so as to give the same distance between its vernier, l, and that, d, of the other
arc, D; but the correct one will be to the west or east of the sun's position ...

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Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015010776253

Category: Technology

Page:

View: 904

Earth s Cycles

When the North Pole is tilted toward the sun ( position I in Figure 5b ) , the sun is
higher in the sky and the northern hemisphere has its summer . When the North
Pole is tilted away from the sun ( position III in Figure 5b ) , the sun's path is lower
 ...

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Author: Robert Gardner

Publisher: Enslow Publishing, LLC

ISBN: 0766036448

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 112

View: 691

Provides environmentally friendly science projects about the Earth's cycles.