The Failure of Political Islam

Richly informed, powerfully argued, and clearly written, this is a book that no one trying to understand Islamism can afford to overlook.

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Author: Olivier Roy

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674291417

Category: Political Science

Page: 238

View: 280

Olivier Roy demonstrates that Islamic Fundamentalism of today is still the Third Worldism of the 1960s: populist politics and mixed economies of laissez-faire for the rich and subsidies for the poor. In Roy's striking formulation, those marching today beneath Islam's green banners are the same as the 'reds' of yesterday, with similarly dim prospects of success. Richly informed, powerfully argued, and clearly written, this is a book that no one trying to understand Islamism can afford to overlook.

Islam and the Making of the Nation

Focusing on the dialectic between the religious and secular anti-colonial movements, this book explores the failure of political Islam in the mid-1950s; the consolidation of the Pancasila state under Soekarno's and Suharto's regimes; the ...

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Author: Chiara Formichi

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1014392694

Category: Indonesia

Page: 244

View: 513

For decades, scholars of Indonesia have rejected the religious claims of the Darul Islam movement, interpreting the antagonism between the Islamic state and Soekarno's republic as a fight for power, self-assertion, or land rights. Recently Kartosuwiryo and the Darul Islam have become heroic symbols of the local Islamist struggle, offering an alternative vision of this politician. The author looks beyond this dichotomy between rebel and martyr to unveil a 'third' dimension of Kartosuwiryo"a politician whose legacy has been shaping the role of Islam in Indonesian politics for over fifty years. In a blend of archival sources, printed material, and oral accounts, the author follows the career and ideology of Kartosuwiryo, nationalist leader of the Sarekat Islam party and later Imam of the Islamic State of Indonesia. Following the trajectory of a political activism that was consistently dedicated to the formation of an independent Indonesian state, the chapters delineate the gradual radicalization of the Islamic party and of Kartosuwiryo's own ideals from the 1920s until the 1950s. Focusing on the dialectic between the religious and secular anti-colonial movements, this book explores the failure of political Islam in the mid-1950s; the consolidation of the Pancasila state under Soekarno's and Suharto's regimes; the latter's attempt to co-opt what was left of the Darul Islam in the 1970s; and the re-emergence of political Islam and Kartosuwiryo's memory in the post-1998 era. A testament to the relevance of historical enquiry in understanding contemporary politics, Islam and the making of the nation guides the reader through the contingencies of the past that have led to the transformation of a nationalist leader into a 'separatist rebel' and a 'martyr', while at the same time shaping the public perception of political Islam and strengthening the position of the Pancasila in contemporary Indonesia. Chiara Formichi (1982) has a PhD from the Department of History of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, in 2009, and she is Assistant Professor in Asian and International Studies at City University of Hong Kong. This monograph was drafted during a post-doctoral fellowship at the Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore. Her interests include the political history of Indonesia, Islam in Southeast Asia, transnational Islamic movements, and inter-Asian intellectual flows. In addition to several articles, her publications include Beyond Shi'ism: Alid piety in Muslim Southeast Asia (London: I.B. Tauris, 2013), Formichi and Feener eds.

Radical Arab Nationalism and Political Islam

Will political Islam fail, too? Can nations ruled by political Islam accommodate modernity? Their success or failure, Addi writes, depends upon this question.

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Author: Lahouari Addi

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 9781626164505

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 663

Radical Arab nationalism emerged in the modern era as a response to European political and cultural domination, culminating in a series of military coups in the mid-20th century in Egypt, Algeria, Syria, Iraq, Yemen, and Libya. This movement heralded the dawn of modern, independent nations that would close the economic, social, scientific, and military gaps with the West while building a unity of Arab nations. But this dream failed. In fact, radical Arab nationalism became a barrier to civil peace and national cohesion, most tragically demonstrated in the case of Syria, for two reasons: 1) national armies militarized nationalism and its political objectives; 2) these nations did not keep pace with the intellectual and political and cultural and social progress of European nations that offered, for example, freedom of speech and thought. It was the failure of radical Arab nationalism, Addi contends, that made the more recent political Islam so popular. But if radical nationalism militarized politics, the Islamists politicized religion. Today, the prevailing medieval interpretation of Islam, defended by the Islamists, prevents these nations from making progress and achieving the kind of social justice that radical Arab nationalism once promised. Will political Islam fail, too? Can nations ruled by political Islam accommodate modernity? Their success or failure, Addi writes, depends upon this question.

The Muslim Revolt

"We fail to understand Islam," writes Roger Hardy in the introduction to this book, "and we are paying a high price for our failure.

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Author: Roger Hardy

Publisher:

ISBN: 1849040311

Category: Islam

Page: 239

View: 820

"We fail to understand Islam," writes Roger Hardy in the introduction to this book, "and we are paying a high price for our failure." The Muslim Revolt explains, in layman's language, a phenomenon that still seems to madden and perplex both the public and the policy-makers. In setting out to demystify Islamism and the forces that drive it, Hardy suggests that for the last two hundred years Muslims have been in revolt against Western domination--and against the failures and disappointments of modernisation. The book takes the form of a journey. Drawing on his travels and encounters as a journalist over the last thirty years, the author explains the political role of Islam in particular countries and regions--Egypt, Iran, Pakistan, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, south-east Asia, Europe--while at the same time telling the story of Islamism from its origins in the era of European colonialism to the emergence of Al-Qaeda and the global jihadists of today. In a challenging conclusion, Hardy warns that without a subtler grasp of Islamism and its discontents, the West will lose its much-vaunted battle for Muslim "hearts and minds."

The Arab Winter

In The Arab Winter, Noah Feldman argues that the Arab Spring was nevertheless not an unmitigated failure, much less an inevitable one.

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Author: Noah Feldman

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691227931

Category: History

Page: 216

View: 142

A New York Times Book Review Editors’ Choice Why the conventional wisdom about the Arab Spring is wrong The Arab Spring promised to end dictatorship and bring self-government to people across the Middle East. Yet everywhere except Tunisia it led to either renewed dictatorship, civil war, extremist terror, or all three. In The Arab Winter, Noah Feldman argues that the Arab Spring was nevertheless not an unmitigated failure, much less an inevitable one. Rather, it was a noble, tragic series of events in which, for the first time in recent Middle Eastern history, Arabic-speaking peoples took free, collective political action as they sought to achieve self-determination. Focusing on the Egyptian revolution and counterrevolution, the Syrian civil war, the rise and fall of ISIS in Syria and Iraq, and the Tunisian struggle toward Islamic constitutionalism, Feldman provides an original account of the political consequences of the Arab Spring, including the reaffirmation of pan-Arab identity, the devastation of Arab nationalisms, and the death of political Islam with the collapse of ISIS. He also challenges commentators who say that the Arab Spring was never truly transformative, that Arab popular self-determination was a mirage, and even that Arabs or Muslims are less capable of democracy than other peoples. Above all, The Arab Winter shows that we must not let the tragic outcome of the Arab Spring disguise its inherent human worth. People whose political lives had been determined from the outside tried, and for a time succeeded, in making politics for themselves. That this did not result in constitutional democracy or a better life for most of those affected doesn't mean the effort didn't matter. To the contrary, it matters for history—and it matters for the future.

Secularization of Iran

This book, which is based on primary and secondary textual sources as well as personal field work and personal interviews, highlights the ongoing contribution of the new middle class in the making of modern Iran.

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Author: Azadeh Kian-Thiébaut

Publisher: Peeters Pub & Booksellers

ISBN: UOM:39015042793920

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 552

This book, which is based on primary and secondary textual sources as well as personal field work and personal interviews, highlights the ongoing contribution of the new middle class in the making of modern Iran. It studies the main causes of their discontent against secular modernizing states, and the reasons behind the failure of secular politics under the Pahlavis; and emphasizes the revival of secular ideas and politics in post-revolutionary Iran. Despite the contribution of the secular new middle class in introducing modern ideas and demands, and their salient role in opposition politics throughout twentieth century Iran they failed to gain the leadership of the 1979 revolution. The result was the defeat of secular ideologies by a modernized and radicalized Shi'ite doctrine. The book examines significant social, cultural, and political outcomes of the revolution, arguing that the failure of political Islam to respond to societal demands has led to the revitalization of debates on Western modernity. The increasing support of the civil society for these intellectual endeavors which attempt to secularize Islam and reconcile Islam with democracy shows that the failure of secularism was the outcome of temporary cicumstances.

Diverging Approaches of Political Islamic Thought in Iran since the 1960s

This book argues that Political Islam in the Iranian context evolved into three main schools of thought during the 1960s and 1970s: Jurisprudential Islam led by Ayatollah Khomeini, Leftist Islam led by Shariati, and Liberal Islam led by ...

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Author: Seyed Mohammad Lolaki

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789811504785

Category: Religion

Page: 239

View: 218

This book argues that Political Islam in the Iranian context evolved into three main schools of thought during the 1960s and 1970s: Jurisprudential Islam led by Ayatollah Khomeini, Leftist Islam led by Shariati, and Liberal Islam led by Bazargan. Despite the fact that all schools seek an Islamic state, their chosen methods and philosophical approaches diverge considerably. The synthesis of these three contrasting socio-political views is structured here to provide a coherent interpretation by means of ongoing comparison. This method has so far not been presented in academic studies within the field of Political Islam. Furthermore, this book provides a critical analysis of the aforementioned ‘Political Islam’ schools in Iran, their similarities and differences, relative success or failure, their contribution to the revolution of 1979 and how they have evolved from the pre-revolution era to the present.

Globalized Islam

Roy provides a detailed comparison of these transnational movements, whether peaceful, like Tabligh Jamaat and the Islamic brotherhoods, or violent, like Al Qaeda.

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Author: Olivier Roy

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231134991

Category: Religion

Page: 349

View: 174

A schism has emerged between mainstream Islamist movements in the Muslim world (e.g. Hamas of Palestine and Hezbullah of Lebanon) and the uprooted militants who strive to establish an imaginary ummah, or Muslim community, not embedded in any particular society or territory. Roy provides a detailed comparison of these transnational movements, whether peaceful, like Tabligh Jamaat and the Islamic brotherhoods, or violent, like Al Qaeda. Neofundamentalism, he argues, is both a product and an agent of globalization.

A Self Study Course on Political Islam Level 1

This course will end your confusion about Islam. You will understand what underlies the events in the Islamic world and what this means for our civilization. This book is level 1.

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Author: Bill Warner

Publisher: CSPI

ISBN: 1936659093

Category: Religion

Page: 94

View: 335

FACT-BASED You can find opinions about Islamic doctrine in the main stream media, but no facts. That is because they do not study the only foundation of knowledge about the true nature of Islam- Mohammed and Allah. This self-study course is based on three of the Islamic source texts: the Koran, the Sira (biography of Mohammed) and the Hadith (his traditions). If your knowledge comes from these original texts, it can be verified and your understanding is on firm ground. SECRETS REVEALED The Koran and all Islamic texts are difficult to read by design. But, when the artificial language is stripped away and replaced by simple English, the results are astounding. We learn that the Islamic ethical system is based on dualism-one set of rules for Muslims and another set of rules for non-Muslims (Kafirs). We find out that Mohammed was a slave trader, an abuser of women and a warlord. Islam as a religion was a failure. Only when Mohammed turned to jihad and politics, did he have any success. A THREE LEVEL SELF-STUDY COURSE The self-study course covers fourteen different topics about Islam from three different views. Each level can be read on its own, but there is a progression of information. This course will end your confusion about Islam. You will understand what underlies the events in the Islamic world and what this means for our civilization. This book is level 1.

Islamist Networks

This book investigates and explains the almost twenty-five-year gestation of these interlinked radical Islamist networks of Pakistan, Central Asia, and Afghanistan, out of which Al Qaida emerged.

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Author: Mariam Abou Zahab

Publisher:

ISBN: PSU:000058294376

Category: History

Page: 88

View: 930

Al Qaida was unable to realize its lethal potential until it found sanctuary in Afghanistan, where Osama bin Laden fled after being expelled from Sudan. But why was the network's sanctuary not attacked before September 2001, especially after the bombing of the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998? Abou Zahab and Roy argue that the Taliban was part of a much wider radical Islamist network in the region, whose true center was Pakistan, not Afghanistan. Al Qaida, the Taliban, the Pakistani Deobandis - all of these groups are based in Pakistan, which continues to serve as the regional hub for Islamist movements and their terrorist offshoots. This book investigates and explains the almost twenty-five-year gestation of these interlinked radical Islamist networks of Pakistan, Central Asia, and Afghanistan, out of which Al Qaida emerged. Taking into account the networks' divergent histories and doctrinal rifts, the authors lay bare the political contingencies that enabled these disparate Islamist movements to coordinate with the aim of attacking what became their common adversary: the United States.

Islam in Southeast Asia

The material gathered in Volume I of this new Routledge collection focuses on the historical, cultural, sociological, theological, and intellectual aspects of Islam in Southeast Asia.

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Author: Joseph Chinyong Liow

Publisher:

ISBN: 0415476801

Category: Islam

Page:

View: 911

The Islamic community in Southeast Asia is widely regarded as one of the most moderate and tolerant in the Muslim world. While most of the region's Muslims are Sunni and fairly orthodox, the Islamic faith as practised in the region has historically been a syncretic blend of Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and folk religions. The syncretic roots of Southeast Asian Islam also underscores the pluralistic nature of Islam in the region today, where Muslims have generally lived peacefully in religiously mixed communities, even in areas where they constituted a large majority. Alongside these pluralistic trends in Southeast Asian Islam are some alternative streams of social-political activism that threaten its traditionally inclusivist character. While most Southeast Asian Muslims are known for their moderation, there has historically been a very small but vocal minority who have been drawn to the more puritanical or extremist variants of the faith. In addition, there is a gradual but clearly discernible trend of conservatism among the general Muslim population, particularly in Malaysia and Indonesia, which has given rise to exclusivist attitudes towards non-Muslims. The material gathered in Volume I of this new Routledge collection focuses on the historical, cultural, sociological, theological, and intellectual aspects of Islam in Southeast Asia. Volume II, meanwhile, assesses trends in Muslim politics in Southeast Asia, investigating the success and failure of political Islam in the Muslim-majority cases of Indonesia and Malaysia, as well as the Muslim-minority contexts of Thailand, Philippines, and Singapore. Volume III identifies and analyses the primary actors and agents that are involved in the formation and development of a burgeoning pan-regional parallel civil society network bringing together religiously inspired Islamist NGOs, civil society actors and agencies, the media, professionals' associations, and political parties; the work collected here charts out a virtual map of the new Islamist activist geography of Southeast Asia. Finally, Volume IV examines the nexus between Islam, politics, and terrorism in the aftermath of the Bali bombings of 2002. It also interrogates the interaction between mainstream political Islam and more extremist fringes of the Islamic communities across the region, as well as domestic and international factors driving radicalism. Fully indexed and with an introduction newly written by the editors that comprehensively places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context, this new Routledge Major Work is an essential research and teaching resource.

The New Central Asia

During the 1991 Soviet coup, most communist leaders from Central Asia backed the plotters.

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Author: Olivier Roy

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9780814776094

Category: History

Page: 222

View: 853

During the anti-Gorbachev coup in August 1991 most communist leaders from Soviet Central Asia backed the plotters. Within weeks of the coup's collapse these same leaders procaimed the independence of their nations. This work analyzes the political structure supporting the new nation states.

Good Muslim Bad Muslim

This book argues that political Islam emerged as the result of a modern encounter with Western power, and that the terrorist movement at the center of Islamist politics is an even more recent phenomenon, one that followed America’s ...

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Author: Mahmood Mamdani

Publisher: Harmony

ISBN: 9780385515917

Category: Religion

Page: 320

View: 575

In this brilliant look at the rise of political Islam, the distinguished political scientist and anthropologist Mahmood Mamdani brings his expertise and insight to bear on a question many Americans have been asking since 9/11: how did this happen? Mamdani dispels the idea of “good” (secular, westernized) and “bad” (premodern, fanatical) Muslims, pointing out that these judgments refer to political rather than cultural or religious identities. The presumption that there are “good” Muslims readily available to be split off from “bad” Muslims masks a failure to make a political analysis of our times. This book argues that political Islam emerged as the result of a modern encounter with Western power, and that the terrorist movement at the center of Islamist politics is an even more recent phenomenon, one that followed America’s embrace of proxy war after its defeat in Vietnam. Mamdani writes with great insight about the Reagan years, showing America’s embrace of the highly ideological politics of “good” against “evil.” Identifying militant nationalist governments as Soviet proxies in countries such as Nicaragua and Afghanistan, the Reagan administration readily backed terrorist movements, hailing them as the “moral equivalents” of America’s Founding Fathers. The era of proxy wars has come to an end with the invasion of Iraq. And there, as in Vietnam, America will need to recognize that it is not fighting terrorism but nationalism, a battle that cannot be won by occupation. Good Muslim, Bad Muslim is a provocative and important book that will profoundly change our understanding both of Islamist politics and the way America is perceived in the world today.

The Muslim Brothers in Pursuit of Legitimacy

Hesham Al-Awadi's lucid and original argument frames this period as one of struggle over legitimacy between the regime and this then banned organisation, charting a cycle of accommodation and coercion.

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Author: Hesham Al-Awadi

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9780857735645

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 450

Following the 25th January revolution, the Muslim Brotherhood emerged as the most organised and successful political force in Egypt as they cashed in on decades of grassroots mobilisation and growth. Through dominance in syndicates and unions, the provision of social services and participation in elections, this the Brotherhood steadily expanded under Mubarak. Hesham Al-Awadi's lucid and original argument frames this period as one of struggle over legitimacy between the regime and this then banned organisation, charting a cycle of accommodation and coercion. The Brotherhood failed to secure the recognition of the state, but gained an informal legitimacy as it occupied the spaces opened up by Mubarak in an early attempt to shore up the credibility of his regime. This social legitimacy became a threat to the regime, haunted by the regional rise of Islamists and a failure to legitimate its leadership, and ushered in an era of coercion. Through these complex dynamics of the conflict and control, and drawing on interviews with key figures such as Abdul Mun'em Abu Al-Futuh, Esam Al-Aryan and Mustafa Al-Fiqi, Al-Awadi sheds light on the Mubarak era and the Muslim Brotherhood that have risen out of it.

Muslim Revolt

"We fail to understand Islam," writes Roger Hardy in the introduction to this book, "and we are paying a high price for our failure.

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Author: Roger Hardy

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199327068

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 227

"We fail to understand Islam," writes Roger Hardy in the introduction to this book, "and we are paying a high price for our failure." The Muslim Revolt explains, in layman's language, a phenomenon that still seems to madden and perplex both the public and the policy-makers. In setting out to demystify Islamism and the forces that drive it, Hardy suggests that for the last two hundred years Muslims have been in revolt against Western domination--and against the failures and disappointments of modernisation. The book takes the form of a journey. Drawing on his travels and encounters as a journalist over the last thirty years, the author explains the political role of Islam in particular countries and regions--Egypt, Iran, Pakistan, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, south-east Asia, Europe--while at the same time telling the story of Islamism from its origins in the era of European colonialism to the emergence of Al-Qaeda and the global jihadists of today. In a challenging conclusion, Hardy warns that without a subtler grasp of Islamism and its discontents, the West will lose its much-vaunted battle for Muslim "hearts and minds."

The Muslim Brothers in Pursuit of Legitimacy

Following the 25th January revolution, the Muslim Brotherhood emerged as the most organised and successful political force in Egypt as they cashed in on decades of grassroots mobilisation and growth.

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Author: Hishām ʻAwaḍī

Publisher:

ISBN: 0755608046

Category: Egypt

Page: 288

View: 736

Following the 25th January revolution, the Muslim Brotherhood emerged as the most organised and successful political force in Egypt as they cashed in on decades of grassroots mobilisation and growth. Through dominance in syndicates and unions, the provision of social services and participation in elections, this the Brotherhood steadily expanded under Mubarak. Hesham Al-Awadi's lucid and original argument frames this period as one of struggle over legitimacy between the regime and this then banned organisation, charting a cycle of accommodation and coercion. The Brotherhood failed to secure the recognition of the state, but gained an informal legitimacy as it occupied the spaces opened up by Mubarak in an early attempt to shore up the credibility of his regime. This social legitimacy became a threat to the regime, haunted by the regional rise of Islamists and a failure to legitimate its leadership, and ushered in an era of coercion. Through these complex dynamics of the conflict and control, and drawing on interviews with key figures such as Abdul Mun'em Abu Al-Futuh, Esam Al-Aryan and Mustafa Al-Fiqi, Al-Awadi sheds light on the Mubarak era and the Muslim Brotherhood that have risen out of it--Bloomsbury Publishing.

Islam and Democracy

A contemporary history of Iran, focusing on the Islamic Revolution.

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Author: Frederic Volpi

Publisher: Pluto Press (UK)

ISBN: STANFORD:36105111969916

Category: History

Page: 168

View: 200

A contemporary history of Iran, focusing on the Islamic Revolution.

Contesting Islam Constructing Race and Sexuality

The Failure of Political Islam. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994. Sacco, Joe. Palestine. Reprint. London: Jonathan Cape, 2003. Safi, Omid. Memories of Muhammad: Why the Prophet Matters. New York: Harper Collins, 2009.

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Author: Sunera Thobani

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781350148116

Category: Philosophy

Page: 272

View: 538

The current political standoffs of the 'War on Terror' illustrate that the interaction within and between the so-called Western and Middle Eastern civilizations is constantly in flux. A recurring theme however is how Islam and Muslims signify the 'Enemy' in the Western socio-cultural imagination and have become the 'Other' against which the West identifies itself. In a unique and insightful blend of critical race, feminist and post-colonial theory, Sunera Thobani examines how Islam is foundational to the formation of Western identity at critical points in its history, including the Crusades, the Reconquista and the colonial period. More specifically, she explores how masculinity and femininity are formed at such pivotal junctures and what role feminism has played in the wars against 'radical' Islam. Exposing these symbiotic relationships, Thobani explores how the return of 'religion' is reworking the racial, gender and sexual politics by which Western society defines itself, and more specifically, defines itself against Islam. Contesting Islam, Constructing Race and Sexuality unpacks conventional as well as unconventional orthodoxies to open up new spaces in how we think about sexual and racial identity in the West and the crucial role that Islam has had and continues to have in its development.