Vascular Plants as Epiphytes

This then promoted the idea of organizing a special symposium on "The evolution and ecophysiology of vascular plants as epiphytes" during the XIV International Botanical Congress in luly 1987 in Berlin, and to ask some of the speakers to ...

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Author: Ulrich Lüttge

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642744655

Category: Science

Page: 270

View: 426

In his lectures my teacher Karl Mägdefrau used to say that one only becomes a real plant scientist when one enters a tropical rainforest. For me this initiation occurred in 1969 in northern Queensland, Australia, and was associated with the greatest excitement. On another level it received confirmation when I set out in 1983 together with some friends and colleagues for the first detailed ecophysiological studies of epiphytes in the wet tropics in situ in the island of Trinidad and later for similar work in Venezuela. This then promoted the idea of organizing a special symposium on "The evolution and ecophysiology of vascular plants as epiphytes" during the XIV International Botanical Congress in luly 1987 in Berlin, and to ask some of the speakers to produce chapters for a small monograph on the interesting ecologically defined group of plants "epiphytes" as presented in this volume of "Ecological Studies". The enthusiasm of the participants of the symposium giving reports and adding to the discussion was most stimulating, and it appears that epiphytes might gain well-deserved, wider consideration in the future. The cooperation with the authors of this book was very pleasant and I appreciated the new contacts established with adepts of the "epiphyte community". The chapters were organized and arranged covering first more gen eral aspects with setting the scene in Chapter 1, the evolution of epi phytism in Chapter 2 and the role of CO -concentrating mechanisms in 2 Chapter 3.

Vascular Epiphytes

Putative evolutionary relationships among the nutritional modes of vascular epiphytes . Whereas too little is known about the nutritive quality of humus mats , decaying wood , and arboreal ant nest - gardens to warrant much discussion ...

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Author: David H. Benzing

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521048958

Category: Nature

Page: 376

View: 611

Epiphytes (plants which grow on other plants, not parasitically but for support), comprise more than one-third of the total vascular flora in some tropical forests. Growing within tropical forest canopies, epiphytes are subject to severe environmental constraints, and their diverse adaptations make them a rich resource for studies of water balance, nutrition, reproduction and evolution. This book synthesizes the body of information from research on epiphytes and their relations with other tropical biota, and provides a comprehensive overview of basic functions, life history, evolution, and the place of epiphytes in complex tropical communities. Tropical ecologists and zoologists as well as plant scientists will find this volume a useful guide to research on the twenty-five thousand species of epiphytes which root in the crowns of tropical trees.

Plants on Plants The Biology of Vascular Epiphytes

With increased size and accumulation of organic material around their fronds, these nest ferns provide suitable substrate for the germination of hemiepiphytic Ficus, other epiphytic ferns, and vascular epiphytes like Hoya sp. or ...

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Author: Gerhard Zotz

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319392370

Category: Science

Page: 282

View: 769

This book critically reviews advances in our understanding of the biology of vascular epiphytes since Andreas Schimper’s 1888 seminal work. It addresses all aspects of their biology, from anatomy and physiology to ecology and evolution, in the context of general biological principles. By comparing epiphytes with non-epiphytes throughout, it offers a valuable resource for researchers in plant sciences and related disciplines. A particular strength is the identification of research areas that have not received the attention they deserve, with conservation being a case in point. Scientists have tended to study pristine systems, but global developments call for information on epiphytes in human-disturbed systems and the response of epiphytes to global climate change.

Forest Canopies

The vascular epiphytes also exhibit well-developed capacities to tolerate drought and avoid photo-injury, sometimes demonstrating more competence in these performances than circumstances seem to warrant. Most of the adaptations that ...

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Author: Margaret Lowman

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780124575530

Category: Nature

Page: 517

View: 900

The treetops of the world's forests are where discovery and opportunity abound, however they have been relatively inaccessible until recently. This book represents an authoritative synthesis of data, anecdotes, case studies, observations, and recommendations from researchers and educators who have risked life and limb in their advocacy of the High Frontier. With innovative rope techniques, cranes, walkways, dirigibles, and towers, they finally gained access to the rich biodiversity that lives far above the forest floor and the emerging science of canopy ecology. In this new edition of Forest Canopies, nearly 60 scientists and educators from around the world look at the biodiversity, ecology, evolution, and conservation of forest canopy ecosystems. -Comprehensive literature list -State-of-the-art results and data sets from current field work -Foremost scientists in the field of canopy ecology -Expanded collaboration of researchers and international projects -User-friendly format with sidebars and case studies -Keywords and outlines for each chapter

Tropical Montane Cloud Forests

Aspects of the ecology of vascular epiphytes in Colombian cloud forests. II. Habitat preference of Bromeliaceae in the Serrania de Macuira. Selbyana 5:264–273. Sugden, A.M. 1982. The ecological, geographic and taxonomic relationships of ...

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Author: Lawrence S. Hamilton

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461225003

Category: Science

Page: 407

View: 184

Until relatively recently the valuable tropical montane cloud forests (hereaf ter usually referred to as TMCFs) of the world had scarcely come under the assaults experienced by the downslope montane and lowland forests. TMCFs are not hospitable environments for human occupation, and their remoteness (except in places near Andean high mountain settlements and in the Ethiopian Highlands) and difficult terrain have given them de facto protection. The ad jacent upper montane rain forests have indeed been under assault for timber, fuelwood, and for conversion to grazing and agriculture for many decades, even centuries in the Andes, but true cloud forest has only come under ex ploitation as these lower elevational resources have disappeared. They have also been "nibbled" at from above where there have been alpine grasslands under grazing pressure. Increasingly now, however, these cloud forest eco systems are being fragmented, reduced, and disturbed at an alarming rate. It is now becoming recognized that steps must be taken rapidly to increase our understanding of TMCF and to achieve their conservation, because: their water-capture function is extremely important to society; • their species endemism is high; they serve as refugia for endangered species being marginalized in these environments by increasingly transformed lower elevation ecosystems; they are relatively little studied; yet, their value to science is extremely high; they have low resilience to disturbance; vii viii Preface and many other reasons, which will be discussed subsequently in this publi cation.

Progress in Botany 70

studies suggest that a regeneration period of at least 100 years is needed before most non-vascular epiphyte species have ... The changes in microclimate in remnant forest patches or along forest edges affect non-vascular epiphytes ...

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Author: Ulrich Lüttge

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540684213

Category: Science

Page: 283

View: 719

This series keeps scientists and advanced students informed of the latest developments and results in all areas of the plant sciences. The present volume includes reviews of the latest results in the major areas of the plant sciences in the past 1-2 years.

Tropical Tree Physiology

Epiphytes are plants that germinate and grow all or most of their lives attached to other plants without contact with ... They occur on the branches of trees in many biomes, but vascular epiphytes are particularly abundant in tropical ...

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Author: Guillermo Goldstein

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319274225

Category: Science

Page: 467

View: 738

This book presents the latest information on tropical tree physiology, making it a valuable research tool for a wide variety of researchers. It is also of general interest to ecologists (e.g. Ecological Society of America; > 3000 or 4000 members at annual meeting), physiologists (e.g. American Society of Plant Biologists; > 2,000 members at annual meeting), and tropical biologists (e.g. Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation, ATBC; > 500 members at annual meeting). (American Geophysical Union(AGU), > 20000 members at annual meeting). Since plant physiology is taught at every university that offers a life sciences, forestry or agricultural program, and physiology is a focus at research institutes and agencies worldwide, the book is a must-have for university and research institution libraries.

Tropical Forest Canopies Ecology and Management

Ecology of vascular epiphytes in West African rain forest. ... Communities of epiphytic vascular plants on a Himalayan mountainside in far eastern Nepal. ... Photosynthetic light requirements of various tropical vascular epiphytes.

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Author: K.E. Linsenmair

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401736060

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 370

View: 494

Almost half of all life on earth may exist in the world's forest canopies. They may also play a vital role in maintaining the planet's climate, yet they remain largely unexplored owing to difficulties of access. They are renowned for their great diversity and role in forest functioning, yet there are still great gaps in the understanding of this `last biological frontier'. This seminal book shows how canopy science is now in a position to answer many of the outstanding questions, among which are some of the most pressing environmental issues society is presently facing. It represents a major summary of the current understanding of canopy ecology, and maps a path forward into a greater understanding of tropical forest ecology and management at a time when the very future of this ecosystem is threatened by humanity's actions.

Functional Plant Ecology

VASCULAR EPIPHYTES Epiphytes are plants that can complete their life cycle living on the stem , branches , or even leaves of other plants . They acquire water and nutrients from rain water and dust , and from accumulation of organic ...

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Author: Francisco Pugnaire

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420007626

Category: Nature

Page: 744

View: 679

Following in the footsteps of the successful first edition, Functional Plant Ecology, Second Edition remains the most authoritative resource in this multidisciplinary field. Extensively revised and updated, this book investigates plant structure and behavior across the ecological spectrum. It features the ecology and evolution of plant crowns and a

Progress in Botany

The diversity of vascular epiphytes is significantly related to tree architecture and forest structure. The vast majority of studies concerned with epiphytic plant diversity have been conducted in the neotropics.

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Author: K. Esser

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642572036

Category: Science

Page: 374

View: 155

With one volume each year, this series keeps scientists and advanced students informed of the latest developments and results in all areas of the plant sciences. The present volume includes reviews on genetics, cell biology, and vegetation science.

Tropical Forest Canopies Ecology and Management

Ecology of vascular epiphytes in West African rain forest . ... Communities of epiphytic vascular plants on a Himalayan mountainside in far eastern Nepal . Ecol . Rev. ... The systematic distribution of vascular epiphytes : an update .

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Author: Karl-Eduard Linsenmair

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 079237049X

Category: Forest canopies

Page: 370

View: 373

Forest Ecology

Callaway RM, Reinhart KO, Moore GW, Moore DJ, Pennings SC (2002) Epiphyte host preferences and host traits: mechanisms for ... Veg Sci 22:71–86 Johansson D (1974) Ecology of vascular epiphytes in West African rain forest.

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Author: Arnold van der Valk

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048127955

Category: Science

Page: 363

View: 284

This volume provides an overview of recent advances in forest ecology on a variety of topics, including species diversity and the factors that control species diversity, environmental factors controlling distribution of forests, impacts of disturbances on forests (fires, drought, hurricane), reproduction ecology of both trees and understory species, and spatial organization of forests. Previously published in Plant Ecology, Volume 201, No.1, 2009.

Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystems

Chapter 13 B.J. WALLACE INTRODUCTION A broad concept is followed in this chapter on the definition of “vascular epiphyte” and the scope of forms encompassed by it. Included are those species of vascular plants which during any phase of ...

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Author: H. Lieth

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444596499

Category: Science

Page: 733

View: 804

After publication of the first volume of the Tropical Rain Forest, the International Journal of Mycology and Lichenology commented ``This is a welcome addition to the literature on the ecology of tropical rain forests. The book provides a wealth of data and stimulating discussions and is of great interest to ecologists interested in tropical areas.'' Whereas the first volume dealt with system-ecological aspects such as community organization and processes, the present volume concentrates on biogeographical aspects such as species composition, diversity, and geographical variation. Recent ecological research in the tropical rain forest has greatly extended our understanding of biogeographical patterns of variation in the various groups of organisms, and has revealed many of the ecological and evolutionary forces that led to the present patterns of variation. Many important systems of co-evolution between the tropical rain forest ecosystems have also come to light, and the loss of species and related damage is better understood in quantitative terms. This volume presents a comprehensive review of these and other features of the rain forest ecosystem structure, and the ecological processes operating that system. General chapters on abiotic and biotic factors are followed by specific chapters on all major groups of organisms. Prospects for the future are discussed and research needs clearly stated. Also the human exploitation of the system, its effects and its limits are discussed. The book is extensively illustrated by photographs, graphs, and tables, and comprehensive bibliographies follow each chapter. Author, systematic and subject indices complete the book. It is a must for all ecologists, agriculturists, foresters, agronomists, hydrologists, soil scientists, entomologists, human ecologists, nature conservationists, and planners dealing with tropical areas. Biologists and environmentalists will also find the volume of great interest.

Ecology and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Oak Forests

Litter was separated into four fractions, i.e. leaves, vascular epiphytes, non-vascular epiphytes (bryophytes and lichens) and trash (including twigs). The total annual litter production showed great differences between the three stands ...

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Author: Maarten Kappelle

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540289098

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 486

View: 322

This comprehensive synthesis systematically covers the entire range of natural and managed oak forests in the highlands of tropical America. Originally, these forests were widely distributed, but largely through human impact large parts have disappeared and the remaining patches are under increasing threat. For the first time, aspects as diverse as the paleo-ecology, biogeography, stand structure and composition, biodiversity, population dynamics, ecosystem dynamics, fragmentation and recovery, conservation and sustainable use of Neotropical montane oak forests are treated in a coherent manner. Providing a thorough understanding of ecological patterns and processes that determine the structure and functioning of these magnificent forests, this volume can serve as a sound basis for sustainable forest management and biodiversity conservation in general.

Coastal Dunes

They are taxonomically widespread among vascular plants (Kress 1989), although more than half of them are orchids, ferns, ... Australia has only one epiphytic species recorded, while six vascular epiphytes and one non-vascular epiphyte ...

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Author: M. L. Martínez

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540740025

Category: Science

Page: 388

View: 418

In this book, coastal dune specialists from tropical and temperate latitudes cover a wide set of topics, including: geomorphology, community dynamics, ecophysiology, biotic interactions and environmental problems and conservation. The book offers recommendations for future research, identifying relevant topics where detailed knowledge is still lacking. It also identifies management tools that will promote and maintain the rich diversity of the dune environments in the context of continuing coastal development.

The Atlantic Forest

J Veg Sci 6(4):487–498 Hsu RC, Wolf JH, Tamis WL (2014) Regional and elevational patterns in vascular epiphyte richness ... Biotropica 46:549–555 Ibisch PL, Boegner A, Nieder J, Barthlott W (1996) How diverse are Neotropical epiphytes?

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Author: Marcia C. M. Marques

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030553227

Category: Science

Page: 517

View: 656

The Atlantic Forest is one of the 36 hotspots for biodiversity conservation worldwide. It is a unique, large biome (more than 3000 km in latitude; 2500 in longitude), marked by high biodiversity, high degree of endemic species and, at the same time, extremely threatened. Approximately 70% of the Brazilian population lives in the area of this biome, which makes the conflict between biodiversity conservation and the sustainability of the human population a relevant issue. This book aims to cover: 1) the historical characterization and geographic variation of the biome; 2) the distribution of the diversity of some relevant taxa; 3) the main threats to biodiversity, and 4) possible opportunities to ensure the biodiversity conservation, and the economic and social sustainability. Also, it is hoped that this book can be useful for those involved in the development of public policies aimed at the conservation of this important global biome.

Physiological Ecology of Tropical Plants

Griffiths H (1989) Carbon dioxide concentrating mechanisms and the evolution of CAM in vascular epiphytes. In: Lüttge U (ed) Vascular plants as epiphytes: evolution and ecophysiology. Ecological studies, vol 76.

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Author: Ulrich Lüttge

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540717935

Category: Science

Page: 458

View: 141

Since the publication of the first edition of this book ten years ago, international research into the physiological ecology of plants in the tropics has increased enormously in quantity and quality. This brand new edition brings the story right up to date. New approaches have been developed in remote sensing while at the other end of the scale molecular biology has come on in leaps and bounds, particularly regarding ecological performance of tropical plants, e.g. in understanding the adaptation of resurrection plants to the extreme habitat of inselbergs. In this fully revised and updated second edition the wealth of new information has made it necessary to break large chapters down into smaller ones.

Monsoonal Australia

APPENDIX 1 : FIELD KEY TO STRUCTURAL TYPES OF RAINFOREST AND MONSOON FOREST VEGETATION IN THE NORTHERN TERRITORY ( FROM WEBB 1978 ) 1 Mesophylls * and notophylls most common 2 Robust lianes , vascular epiphytes , plank buttresses ...

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Author: C.M. Haynes

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9061916380

Category: Science

Page: 242

View: 124

This work covers the history of the landscape, the climate, the vegetation, the vertebrate animals, Aboriginal association with the land, and conservation and the future.

Air Plants

Aspects of the ecology of vascular epiphytes in Colombian cloud forest. I. The distribution of the epiphyte flora. Biotropica 11:173–188. Thorne, B. L., Haverty, M. I., and Benzing, D. H. 1996. Association between termites and ...

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Author: David H. Benzing

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801464348

Category: Nature

Page: 256

View: 232

Often growing far above the ground, "air plants" (or epiphytes) defy many of our common perceptions about plants. The majority use their roots only for attachment in the crowns of larger, usually woody plants—or to objects such as rocks and buildings—and derive moisture and nutrients from the atmosphere and by collecting falling debris. Only the mistletoes are true parasites. Epiphytes are not anomalies and there are approximately 28,000 species—about 10 percent of the higher or vascular plants—that grow this way. Many popular houseplants, including numerous aroids, bromeliads, ferns, and orchids, rank among the most familiar examples. In Air Plants, David H. Benzing takes a reader on a tour of the many taxonomic groups to which the epiphytes belong and explains in nontechnical language the anatomical and physiological adaptations that allow these plants to conserve water, thrive without the benefit of soil, and engage in unusual relationships with animals such as frogs and ants. Benzing’s comprehensive account covers topics including ecology, evolution, photosynthesis and water relations, mineral nutrition, reproduction, and the nature of the forest canopy as habitat for the free-living and parasitic epiphytes. It also pays special attention to important phenomena such as adaptive trade-offs and leaf economics. Drawing on the author’s deep experience with epiphytes and the latest scientific research, this book is accessible to readers unfamiliar with technical botany; it features a lavish illustration program, references, a glossary, and tables.