Wastewater Pathogens

A practical guide to wastewater pathogens The fourth volume in Wiley's Wastewater Microbiology series, Wastewater Pathogens offers wastewater personnel a practical guide that is free of overly technical jargon.

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Author: Michael H. Gerardi

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471710424

Category: Science

Page: 192

View: 708

A practical guide to wastewater pathogens The fourth volume in Wiley's Wastewater Microbiology series,Wastewater Pathogens offers wastewater personnel a practical guidethat is free of overly technical jargon. Designed especially foroperators, the text provides straight facts on the biology oftreatment as well as appropriate protective measures. Coverageincludes: * An overview of relevant history, hazards, and organisms * Viruses, bacteria, and fungi * Protozoa and helminthes * Ectoparasites and rodents * Aerosols, foam, and sludge * Disease transmission and the body's defenses * Removal, inactivation, and destruction of pathogens * Hygiene measures, protective equipment, and immunizations

Reduction of Pathogens Indicator Bacteria and Alternative Indicators by Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation Processes

In wastewater reclamation systems, microbiological monitoring is conducted to ensure that the users of reclaimed water are exposed to minimal risks from exposure to pathogens.

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Author: Joan B. Rose

Publisher: IWA Publishing

ISBN: 9781843397304

Category: Science

Page: 60

View: 792

In wastewater reclamation systems, microbiological monitoring is conducted to ensure that the users of reclaimed water are exposed to minimal risks from exposure to pathogens. Typically, utilities rely on the use of process controls to remove or inactivate pathogens. Routine monitoring of indicator organisms is conducted to evaluate overall process performance and for regulatory compliance. However, the effectiveness of individual treatment processes for removal of pathogens is dependent on process variables. This project was conducted to compare the effectiveness of biological treatment, filtration, and disinfection for removal of bacterial and viral indicators, enteric viruses, and protozoan pathogens. Six full-scale treatment facilities were each sampled a minimum of four times over a one year period. The relative impacts of loading conditions, process design, and operating parameters on the removal/inactivation of a suite of nine microbial species (bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses, and protozoan pathogens) was evaluated. Bacterial removal was consistent for all types of biological systems, however, increased virus removal was associated with biological nutrient removal and nitrification processes. Parasite removal was highly variable. The effectiveness of filtration was impacted most by the use of upstream chemicals (either chlorine or coagulant chemicals). Chlorine disinfection was more effective in cases where ammonia levels were low (biological nutrient removal or nitrification facilities). Infectivity assays for protozoan pathogens suggest that the proportion of infective cysts or oocysts increases with increasing level of treatment.

Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering

This book provides an amalgamation of all recent scientific information on hospital wastewater which is not available in the current literature.

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Author: R. D. Tyagi

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780128197226

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 668

View: 704

Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Environmental and Health Impact of Hospital Wastewater narrates the origin (history) of pharmaceuticals discoveries, hospital wastewater and its environmental and health impacts. It covers microbiology of hospital wastewater (pathogens, multi-drug resistance development, microbial evolution and impacts on humans, animals, fish), advanced treatment options (including biological, physical and chemical methods), and highlights aspects required during hospital wastewater treatment processes. This book provides an amalgamation of all recent scientific information on hospital wastewater which is not available in the current literature. Introduces physical, chemical and molecular testing methods for the analysis and characterization of hospital wastewater Discusses the environmental impact and health hazards of hospital wastewater Describes the microbiological aspects of the hospital wastewater, like microbial community, metagenomics, pathogens, VBNC and mechanism of antibiotic resistance development Explains hospital wastewater and its role in microbial evolution Highlights future treatment options, guidelines and drug disposal tactics

Fate and Persistence of Pathogens Subjected to Disinfection

Disinfection of wastewater is a necessary treatment process for protecting the public from potential exposure to pathogenic microorganisms because many wastewater effluents are discharged into water bodies that may be used for recreation or ...

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Author: K. G. Linden

Publisher: IWA Publishing

ISBN: 9781843396994

Category: Science

Page: 124

View: 862

Defines the mechanisms of pathogen resistance, the

Wastewater Collection System Maintenance

Vectors are pathogen carriers and transmitters . Vectors include insects , rodents , animals , and wastewater itself . Etiologic agents are disease ...

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Author: Michael J. Parcher

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1566765692

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 359

View: 561

FROM THE PREFACE Wastewater collection systems are dynamic, not static. There is no single maintenance method, equipment, or technique that works best. Keeping an open mind, trying new techniques and technologies benefits sewer system operators. No two collection systems are alike. Maintenance staffing, skill levels, equipment, budgets, age and complexity of the system make each agency unique. However, collection systems do have many traits and problems in common. Based on inventory and analysis, problems are identified. Defects may then be prioritized, and corrective maintenance operations put into effect. Preventive maintenance techniques can be applied to all collection systems. Preventive maintenance is cost-effective; it strives to prevent problems from occurring rather than reacting to difficult situations and "putting out fires." This book examines problems shared by all agencies: roots, grease, deterioration, hydraulic inefficiencies and structural defects. New solutions to age-old problems are applied: TV inspection and video interpretation, rehabilitation analysis and trenchless technologies. Computerized maintenance management and GIS softwares are discussed. Jetting, line cleaning and exciting developments in nozzle technology are included. Roots and chemical root control foam, wastewater control and grease are major topics as well. Wastewater Collection System Maintenance shares insights drawn from operator experience, trial and error, successes and failures in the field, interviews and years of research and studies. A user-friendly rating and evaluation system is explained and applied to field conditions. Equipment operation and maintenance, and "tricks of the trade" are also discussed. As cities grow, new systems are extended upstream from older sewers. Many of these core drainage basins are now under capacity and in need of capital improvement projects. There are approximately 600,000 miles of sanitary sewers in the country. Nationwide, there exists a huge backlog of sewer pipes that need rehabilitation. Replacement would cost many billions of dollars. Maintenance operators are entrusted with the care and feeding of an aging sewer infrastructure.

Behaviour of Pathogens in Wastewater Treatment Processes

Many viruses are excreted by humans and animals. Some of these are present in very large numbers but cannot be grown, others can only be grown with difficulty in cell cultures.

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Author: Matilda Khan

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 1542677564

Category:

Page: 52

View: 272

Many viruses are excreted by humans and animals. Some of these are present in very large numbers but cannot be grown, others can only be grown with difficulty in cell cultures. Enteroviruses, hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses, parvovirus-like viruses, astroviruses, caliciviruses, adenoviruses and coronaviruses may be present in human excreta. Rotaviruses are the commonest cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in infancy and childhood. In children aged 6 months to 10 years, infection by rotaviruses occurs more frequently during winter months in temperate countries. In tropical countries, there is considerable variation in the incidence of rotavirus infections among children.

Detection of Plant Viral Pathogens in Wastewater Sources for Recycling

In a recent study, high levels of plant viruses were discovered in human waste.

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Author: Melody Lau Han Min

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:277178070

Category: Plant viruses

Page: 20

View: 596

In a recent study, high levels of plant viruses were discovered in human waste. This raises the question whether plant viruses are present in Australian wastewater treatment plants. While guidelines for recycled water require it to be free of human pathogens, it is unknown whether recycled water is delivering plant pathogens to end users.

Efficient Management of Wastewater

... Health Organization (WHO) guidelines (1989) with respect to the maximum allowable limits of indicator pathogens in the effluent of treatment plants.

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Author: Ismail Al Baz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540744924

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 303

View: 713

Water reuse management is one of the challenges all water scarce countries have to deal with in the coming decades. The present book highlights non-conventional solutions within the field of wastewater treatment and reuse predominantly for professionals and decision makers. It focuses on technologies which are reliable, sustainable, low cost and suitable for rural and sub urban areas. In addition, particularly innovative on-site concepts are presented.

Handbook of Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse

The major environmental factors that influence excreta pathogen dieoff are ... affect the survival time of pathogens in soil include : level of wastewater ...

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Author: Donald R. Rowe

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 087371671X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 576

View: 232

This comprehensive reference provides thorough coverage of water and wastewater reclamation and reuse. It begins with an introductory chapter covering the fundamentals, basic principles, and concepts. Next, drinking water and treated wastewater criteria, guidelines, and standards for the United States, Europe and the World Health Organization (WHO) are presented. Chapter 3 provides the physical, chemical, biological, and bacteriological characteristics, as well as the radioactive and rheological properties, of water and wastewater. The next chapter discusses the health aspects and removal treatment processes of microbial, chemical, and radiological constituents found in reclaimed wastewater. Chapter 5 discusses the various wastewater treatment processes and sludge treatment and disposal. Risk assessment is covered in chapter 6. The next three chapters cover the economics, monitoring (sampling and analysis), and legal aspects of wastewater reclamation and reuse. This practical handbook also presents real-world case studies, as well as sources of information for research, potential sources for research funds, and information on current research projects. Each chapter includes an introduction, end-of-chapter problems, and references, making this comprehensive text/reference useful to both students and professionals.

Environmental Regulations and Technology

This work lists general references and additional resources related to biosolids use; specific references related to particular topics are also included at the end of each chapter and lists EPA and state sewage sludge coordinators, and ...

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Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015042095219

Category: Sewage sludge

Page: 152

View: 953

This publication provides basic information about pathogens and describes why pathogen control is required to protect public health and the environment, and discusses the current federal requirements under Subpart D and Part 503. It reviews the different PFRP and PSRP processes and discusses vector attraction reduction issues. It goes on to summarize sampling and analysis protocols used to meet the quantitative requirements of Part 503 and outlines the process for applying for equivalency and discusses the kind of support EPA's Pathogen Equivalency Committee can provide to permitting authorities. This work lists general references and additional resources related to biosolids use; specific references related to particular topics are also included at the end of each chapter and lists EPA and state sewage sludge coordinators, and Appendix B contains Subpart D of the Part 503 regulation.

Alternatives for Small Wastewater Treatment Systems On site disposal

Appliance selection Reduce pathogens , flow , BOD , N , P , solids Reduce P , solids ... Vacuum sewer Carry wastewater Reduce solids , grease , pathogens ?

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Author: United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Technology Transfer

Publisher:

ISBN: UIUC:30112069490149

Category: Sewage disposal

Page:

View: 588

These materials, prepared for the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Program, were used in presenting Technology Transfer design seminars throughout the United States. When faced with decisions on wastewater treatment system upgrading or replacement, many small communities and rural areas run into financial difficulties. This trio of documents presents the results of research into this problem, which examines various strategies and systems, and their associated costs, in order to arm utilities managers in such communities with information vital to making informed, responsible decisions regarding wastewater treatment.

Assessment of the Fate of Surrogates for Enteric Pathogens Resulting From the Surcharging of Combined Sewer Systems

One of the major sources of pathogens related to water-borne diseases, ... Wastewater is a mixture of natural and man-made organic and inorganic substances ...

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Author: Iosif Marios Scoullos

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000193701

Category: Science

Page: 150

View: 777

In the last ten years (2009-2019), flooding caused the death of over 48,000 people, and affected over 697 million people globally. This is expected to increase as a result of climate change, population growth and urbanisation. Floods can cause infections due to the release of water-borne pathogens from surcharged combined sewers and other sources of faecal contamination on urban surfaces such as concrete, asphalt, gravel, pavement, playground rubber tiles and grass. Using laboratory experiments with faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli, and with Bacillus subtilis spores, and MS2 bacteriophages under controlled exposure to simulated sunlight, this research contributes towards a better understanding of the environmental parameters that affect the concentration of pathogens in contaminated shallow water bodies and on different urban surfaces. Also, several sampling methods are assessed for the recovery of bacteria from flood-prone urban surfaces. This study suggests that given the sunlight conditions after an urban flood, the concentration of indicator organisms and of total suspended solids and the surface type it is possible to estimate the fate of selected pathogens. The observations and results presented in this study contribute to the development of policy-making tools for rapid implementation of appropriate measures to mitigate public health risks after flooding. This book: - highlights the relation of urban floods with water-borne diseases. -stresses for the first time the importance of urban surfaces (pavement, concrete, asphalt, etc.) on the inactivation of water-borne pathogens. -provides equations that can be used to develop policy-making tools for implementation of appropriate measures to mitigate public health risks after flooding.

Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries

Overall the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in warm climates is ... including faecal pathogens of most, if not all, of Categories I–V. We use the ...

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Author: Duncan Mara

Publisher: Earthscan

ISBN: 9781849771023

Category: Political Science

Page: 210

View: 416

Affordable and effective domestic wastewater treatment is a critical issue in public health and disease prevention around the world, particularly so in developing countries which often lack the financial and technical resources necessary for proper treatment facilities.This practical guide provides state-of-the-art coverage of methods for domestic wastewater treatment and provides a foundation to the practical design of wastewater treatment and re-use systems. The emphasis is on low-cost, low-energy, low-maintenance, high-performance 'natural' systems that contribute to environmental sustainability by producing effluents that can be safely and profitably used in agriculture for crop irrigation and/or in aquaculture, for fish and aquatic vegetable pond fertilization. Modern design methodologies, with worked design examples, are described for waste stabilization ponds, wastewater storage and treatment reservoirs; constructed wetlands, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors, biofilters, aerated lagoons and oxidation ditches. This book is essential reading for engineers, academics and upper-level and graduate students in engineering, wastewater management and public health, and others interested in sustainable and cost-effective technologies for reducing wastewater-related diseases and environmental damage.

Wastewater Aerosols and Disease

Related Studies Recent literature searches have revealed little evidence of occupational health problems associated with wastewater pathogens ( 8,9 ) .

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Author: H. Pahren

Publisher:

ISBN: UCR:31210012650329

Category: Aerosols

Page: 367

View: 945