Wikipedia and the Politics of Openness

The resulting book is the richest critical analysis of openness to date, one that roots media theory in messy reality and thereby helps us move beyond the vaporware promises of digital utopians and take the first steps toward truly ...

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Author: Nathaniel Tkacz

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226192444

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 232

View: 569

Few virtues are as celebrated in contemporary culture as openness. Rooted in software culture and carrying more than a whiff of Silicon Valley technical utopianism, openness—of decision-making, data, and organizational structure—is seen as the cure for many problems in politics and business. But what does openness mean, and what would a political theory of openness look like? With Wikipedia and the Politics of Openness, Nathaniel Tkacz uses Wikipedia, the most prominent product of open organization, to analyze the theory and politics of openness in practice—and to break its spell. Through discussions of edit wars, article deletion policies, user access levels, and more, Tkacz enables us to see how the key concepts of openness—including collaboration, ad-hocracy, and the splitting of contested projects through “forking”—play out in reality. The resulting book is the richest critical analysis of openness to date, one that roots media theory in messy reality and thereby helps us move beyond the vaporware promises of digital utopians and take the first steps toward truly understanding what openness does, and does not, have to offer.

Cultures and Politics of Global Communication Volume 34 Review of International Studies

Rather, the openness of the Wikipedia has clear limits (we might call this '
bounded openness'): not only do a small team ... of an extensive and protracted
serious of successive (political) reorientations, from critical to supportive and
back again, ...

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Author: Costas M. Constantinou

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521727111

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 234

View: 245

This special issue focuses on how International Relations communicates with the world.

Wikipedia Work and Capitalism

Wikipedia is finally not interesting for commercial companies, which means there
are no conflicts. ... Wikipedia politically stands for openness, and the political
effect of it is not connected to the new forms of production and new ways to
finance ...

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Author: Arwid Lund

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319506906

Category: Social Science

Page: 373

View: 204

This book relates Wikipedians’ conceptions of their activities in terms of play, game, work and labour, to their views on Wikipedia and capitalism. The author identifies and compares ideology formations with each other, and with contemporary Marxist theory, providing critical evaluation of the perceived economic relation between peer production and capitalism. The book covers a range of topics including encyclopaedias and the digital revolution; Marxist approaches to cognitive capitalism; and crowdsourcing. The book richly contributes to the emerging literature of critical internet studies, providing a unique intersection of three fields of knowledge: social effects of digital technology; ideologies and politics of cognitive capitalism’s social relations; and the culture of contemporary capitalism. Wikipedia, Work and Capitalism will be of interest to students and scholars across a range of disciplines including political economy, sociology and digital cultures, as well as social activists, Wikipedians, and peer producers.

International Encyclopedia of Digital Communication and Society 3 Volume Set

The wiki has lent itself to popular vocabularies to describe domains that are
commonly known as open politics, open media, open business, and open
education. At the macrolevel, openness is frequently associated with both liberal
theories of ...

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Author: Dixons Chair in New Media and the Internet Interdepartmental Programme in Media and Communications Robin Mansell

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118290743

Category: Computers

Page: 1296

View: 909

"The International Encyclopedia of Digital Communication and Society" offers critical assessments of theoretical and applied research on digitally-mediated communication, a central area of study in the 21st century. - Examines topics with unprecedented breadth and depth, with the aim of bringing together international and interdisciplinary perspectives - Organized in an accessible A-Z format with over 150 entries on key topics ranging from 2,000 to 10,000 words - Addresses a full range of topics including digitally-mediated social media, commercial applications and online gaming, to law and policy analysis and information and communication technologies for development - Published with a regularly updated online edition which will ensure readers are kept abreast of the latest developments in research- Part of "The Wiley Blackwell-ICA International Encyclopedias of Communication" series, published in conjunction with the "International Communication Association"

Open Information Management Applications of Interconnectivity and Collaboration

one single viewpoint; on the contrary they should represent all the different but
significant ways of thinking about the article at issue. Most of the users
interviewed in this study mentioned NPOV as a ground rule in Finnish Wikipedia.
There are ...

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Author: Niiranen, Samuli

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781605662473

Category: Computers

Page: 498

View: 119

Discusses the impact of emerging trends in information technology towards solutions capable of managing information within open, principally unbounded, operational environments.

Good Faith Collaboration

In Good Faith Collaboration, Joseph Reagle examines this unique collaborative culture.

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Author: Joseph Reagle

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262288705

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 264

View: 353

How Wikipedia collaboration addresses the challenges of openness, consensus, and leadership in a historical pursuit for a universal encyclopedia. Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, is built by a community—a community of Wikipedians who are expected to “assume good faith” when interacting with one another. In Good Faith Collaboration, Joseph Reagle examines this unique collaborative culture. Wikipedia, says Reagle, is not the first effort to create a freely shared, universal encyclopedia; its early twentieth-century ancestors include Paul Otlet's Universal Repository and H. G. Wells's proposal for a World Brain. Both these projects, like Wikipedia, were fuelled by new technology—which at the time included index cards and microfilm. What distinguishes Wikipedia from these and other more recent ventures is Wikipedia's good-faith collaborative culture, as seen not only in the writing and editing of articles but also in their discussion pages and edit histories. Keeping an open perspective on both knowledge claims and other contributors, Reagle argues, creates an extraordinary collaborative potential. Wikipedia's style of collaborative production has been imitated, analyzed, and satirized. Despite the social unease over its implications for individual autonomy, institutional authority, and the character (and quality) of cultural products, Wikipedia's good-faith collaborative culture has brought us closer than ever to a realization of the century-old pursuit of a universal encyclopedia.

Wikipedia 3 5 million Articles Counting

ikipedia is set apart from other encyclopedias in that it is free for everyone to use
and is open to anyone to edit. This openness results in both Wikipedia's strengths
and its weaknesses. Though Wikipedia can be a great tool for beginning to ...

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Author: Heather Hasan

Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc

ISBN: 9781448855575

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 48

View: 478

Presents an introduction to Wikipedia, the world's largest electronic encyclopedia, describing its conception and development, the roles of its authors and editors, and its strengths and weaknesses as a source of reliable information.

Virtues of Openness

The Virtues of Openness examines the complex history of the concept of the open society before beginning a systematic investigation of openness in relation to the book, the “open text” and the written word.

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Author: Michael A. Peters

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317249542

Category: Education

Page: 224

View: 468

The movement toward greater openness represents a change of philosophy, ethos, and government and a set of interrelated and complex changes that transform markets altering the modes of production and consumption, ushering in a new era based on the values of openness: an ethic of sharing and peer-to-peer collaboration enabled through new architectures of participation. These changes indicate a broader shift from the underlying industrial mode of production—a “productionist” metaphysics—to a postindustrial mode of consumption as use, reuse, and modification where new logics of social media structure different patterns of cultural consumption and symbolic analysis becomes a habitual and daily creative activity. The economics of openness constructs a new language of “presuming” and “produsage” in order to capture the open participation, collective co-creativity, communal evaluation, and commons-based production of social and public goods. Information is the vital element in the “new” politics and economy that links space, knowledge, and capital in networked practices and freedom is the essential ingredient in this equation if these network practices are to develop or transform themselves into 'knowledge cultures'. The Virtues of Openness investigates the social processes and policies that foster openness as an overriding educational value evidenced in the growth of open source, open access, and open education and their convergences that characterize global knowledge communities. The book argues that openness seems also to suggest political transparency and the norms of open inquiry, indeed, even democracy itself as both the basis of the logic of inquiry and the dissemination of its results. The Virtues of Openness examines the complex history of the concept of the open society before beginning a systematic investigation of openness in relation to the book, the “open text” and the written word. These changes are discussed in relation to the development of new open spaces of scholarship with their impact upon open journal systems, open peer review, open science, and the open global digital economy.

Social Science for Counterterrorism

... Loayza, eds., Terrorism, Economic Development, and Political Openness, New
York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Al-
Aqsa_Martyrs%27_Brigades_suicide_attacks ———, “Hizballah and Its ...

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Author: Paul K. Davis

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 9780833047601

Category: POLITICAL SCIENCE

Page: 486

View: 266

Employs an interdisciplinary, social science approach to various counterterrorism questions, problems, and policies.

The Wikipedia Revolution

Wikipediacontinues that tradition bybeing disseminated widely andlinkedto
extensivelyon theInternet.Its direct rivalsinthe English ... in such ashort time. The
Wikipedia project is radically differentfrom otherwriting methods because it is
open.

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Author: Andrew Lih

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 9781401395858

Category: Computers

Page: 272

View: 567

"Imagine a world in which every single person on the planet is given free access to the sum of all human knowledge. That's what we're doing." --Jimmy Wales With more than 2,000,000 individual articles on everything from Aa! (a Japanese pop group) to Zzyzx, California, written by an army of volunteer contributors, Wikipedia is the #8 site on the World Wide Web. Created (and corrected) by anyone with access to a computer, this impressive assemblage of knowledge is growing at an astonishing rate of more than 30,000,000 words a month. Now for the first time, a Wikipedia insider tells the story of how it all happened--from the first glimmer of an idea to the global phenomenon it's become. Andrew Lih has been an administrator (a trusted user who is granted access to technical features) at Wikipedia for more than four years, as well as a regular host of the weekly Wikipedia podcast. In The Wikipedia Revolution, he details the site's inception in 2001, its evolution, and its remarkable growth, while also explaining its larger cultural repercussions. Wikipedia is not just a website; it's a global community of contributors who have banded together out of a shared passion for making knowledge free. Featuring a Foreword by Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales and an Afterword that is itself a Wikipedia creation.

Wikipedia U

Despite the Wikimedia Foundation's investment in Wikidata, whatever role
Wikipedia plays in Web 3.0 is bound to be dramatically diminished from its
paradigmatic role in Web 2.0. Wikipedia's hallmark has always been its
openness to human ...

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Author: Thomas Leitch

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9781421415505

Category: Education

Page: 176

View: 879

Since its launch in 2001, Wikipedia has been a lightning rod for debates about knowledge and traditional authority. It has come under particular scrutiny from publishers of print encyclopedias and college professors, who are skeptical about whether a crowd-sourced encyclopedia—in which most entries are subject to potentially endless reviewing and editing by anonymous collaborators whose credentials cannot be established—can ever truly be accurate or authoritative. In Wikipedia U, Thomas Leitch argues that the assumptions these critics make about accuracy and authority are themselves open to debate. After all, academics are expected both to consult the latest research and to return to the earliest sources in their field, each of which has its own authority. And when teachers encourage students to master information so that they can question it independently, their ultimate goal is to create a new generation of thinkers and makers whose authority will ultimately supplant their own. Wikipedia U offers vital new lessons about the nature of authority and the opportunities and challenges of Web 2.0. Leitch regards Wikipedia as an ideal instrument for probing the central assumptions behind liberal education, making it more than merely, as one of its severest critics has charged, "the encyclopedia game, played online."

Thoughts on Open Innovation

By Coleman McCormick With the growth of the open data movement,
governments and data publishers are looking to enhance citizen participation.
OpenStreetMap, the wiki of world maps, is an exemplary model for how to build
community ...

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Author: OpenForum Academy Fellows

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 9781304015518

Category:

Page:

View: 674

Beyond WikiLeaks

Technological, social, and political changes have created new opportunities for
people to communicate and exchange ... forms, from Wikipedia to participatory
political practices; and campaigns for transparency and openness are
challenging ...

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Author: B. Brevini

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781137275745

Category: Social Science

Page: 281

View: 274

The 2010 release of US embassy diplomatic cables put WikiLeaks into the international spotlight. Revelations by the leaks sparked intense debate within international diplomacy, journalism and society. This book reflects on the implications of WikiLeaks across politics and media, and on the results of leak journalism and transparency activism.

Open Linked Data Open Government Data Sets

4 The model of creative common licenses5 also provides a definition of several
grades of openness under licenses from ... 4 http://www.opendefinition.org 5 http
://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative_Commons http://creativecommons.org/ 6 The six
 ...

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Author: Markus Volk

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783640930845

Category: Computers

Page: 21

View: 539

Seminar paper from the year 2011 in the subject Computer Science - Applied, grade: 2,0, University of Koblenz-Landau (Institut für Wirtschafts- und Verwaltungsinformatik), course: Anwendugnen der Verwaltungsinformatik, language: English, abstract: Since late 2009 there has been a tendency towards a previously unknown openness in providing governmental data to the public. Valuable data sources are opened not only to selected scientists, but everybody who has internet connection available. The following shall be an overview on Open Linked Data, Government Data Sets and how they are made available in different parts of the world. Starting with the U.K. countries in northern Europe, the U.S.A and Australia have already opened up their databases to the public. The different ways and similarities in Open Data, Government Data and Linked Open Government Data shall be outlined. Furthermore the different user groups and their needs will be considered.

Planet Google

... have been directed to Wikipedia's ad-free site. Wikipedia's very openness
could turn out to be a great help to Google in building out its collection of knols.
Charles Matthews, who identified himself as a Wikipedia administrator and
arbitrator, ...

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Author: Randall Stross

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9781416546962

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 288

View: 140

Draws on interviews with Google's CEO and the heads of its newest businesses to trace the story of the company's ambitions and influence, covering such topics as its acquisition of YouTube and its role in reshaping business and culture.

Wikipedia as Collective Action

Wikipedia is open source , in the sense that it uses a “ copyleft ” scheme to keep
all content generated by contributors freely accessible and immune to capture by
anyone who would seek to restrict in any way the use of materials copied or ...

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Author: Benjamin Keith Johnson

Publisher:

ISBN: MSU:31293029561671

Category: Electronic dissertations

Page: 132

View: 454

Wiki

According to Wales, 10% of the users of Wikipedia perform 80% of the edits, and
5% perform 66% of the edits. Thus, despite the openness of the system, core
groups of authors have crystallized. Research into this phenomenon is still in its ...

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Author: Anja Ebersbach

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540292675

Category: Computers

Page: 383

View: 654

A book about wikis! That's what people need. Because with wiki technology, lots of people can freely work - gether – they can even generate very large works in the intellectual realm. See for yourself: Today, we still marvel at our massive church buildings, each c- structed over a period of centuries, requiring an immense amount of labor and often bearing the cultural stamp of all of the epochs during which it was created. Someone just has to begin by placing stone upon stone and motivate the people nearby to help out a bit. In places where such enthusiastic fellow men and women lend a hand and donate materials, great things can emerge. And where they are absent? Either scant ruins remain, or the iron will of a pharaoh is - quired, an army of drivers, the sweat of a people and a mountain of gold. Great things can also be created in that way – take the Py- mids: a clear concept, no blending of styles, pure will. Those are two very different paths. The one entails passionate people devotedly building something together for the common good; the other: a single will manages a variety of resources to achieve a set goal. Wikis are tools with which lots of people with a minimum of - ganization, planning, money and time can create something together and communicate with each other from several scattered computers or over the Internet.

Digital By Product Data in Web 2 0

The openness of Wikipedia's edit policy fostered a nourishing environment for the
articles in Wikipedia to grow exponentially since its establishment. However,
there are a number of questions remaining, including: how open is Wikipedia?;

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Author: Zeyi He

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 9781443873581

Category: Reference

Page: 275

View: 373

Thanks to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), every action on the Internet nowadays is recorded by digital by-product data: online purchases, tagging friends’ photos, browsing webpages, etc. This unprecedented technological revolution has empowered us with unique abilities to understand not only people’s behaviours, but also online platforms. Business corporates and academic researchers alike have both embarked on actively mining such information to stay ahead of the game in the digital age. Once lost in the sea of information that is present in every corner of the Internet, we now have a better appreciation of the beauty in this rich body of information aided by improved computing power. The deconvolution of the daily records provides us with a road map that leads us to explore who we are, what we did, what we want and why we want certain things, etc. This hidden source of information is beginning to surface, as is its potential in paving the way for us to better understand our society and ourselves. This book discusses the undiscovered opportunity of using digital by-product data, which is automatically generated from all internet applications for housekeeping functions. This book then continues to examine the possibility and operability for social scientists to conduct academic research of web 2.0 applications by analysing and visualizing digital by-product data.

Politics

There is a great deal inaccurate or distorted . which political campaigns can do to
improve their WikipeIf you're a ... For all of Wikipedia's self - proclaimed openness
, it often One supposed solution is for campaigns to engage a vol feels ...

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Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: NWU:35556041084732

Category: Campaign management

Page:

View: 596

Wiki Government

Of course, a minimum degree of openness and transparency is a baseline
prerequisite. (Many government data, including patents, are stored as images
rather than text, making that information difficult to use and not subject to search.)
 ...

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Author: Beth Simone Noveck

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815703465

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 479

Collaborative democracy—government with the people—is a new vision of governance in the digital age. Wiki Government explains how to translate the vision into reality. Beth Simone Noveck draws on her experience in creating Peer-to-Patent, the federal government's first social networking initiative, to show how technology can connect the expertise of the many to the power of the few. In the process, she reveals what it takes to innovate in government. Launched in 2007, Peer-to-Patent connects patent examiners to volunteer scientists and technologists via the web. These dedicated but overtaxed officials decide which of the million-plus patent applications currently in the pipeline to approve. Their decisions help determine which start-up pioneers a new industry and which disappears without a trace. Patent examiners have traditionally worked in secret, cut off from essential information and racing against the clock to rule on lengthy, technical claims. Peer-to-Patent broke this mold by creating online networks of self-selecting citizen experts and channeling their knowledge and enthusiasm into forms that patent examiners can easily use. Peer-to-Patent shows how policymakers can improve decisionmaking by harnessing networks to public institutions. By encouraging, coordinating, and structuring citizen participation, technology can make government both more open and more effective at solving today's complex social and economic problems. Wiki Government describes how this model can be applied in a wide variety of settings and offers a fundamental rethinking of effective governance and democratic legitimacy for the twenty-first century.